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V. Discharge of the obligation.

A judgment, as the fmal part of a court case, is a decision made by a court that resolves a controversy and determines the rights and obligations of the parties. It states who wins the case and what remedies the winner is awarded. Remedies may include money damages, injunction relief, or both. A judgment also signifies the end of the court’s jurisdiction in the case. Finally, a judgment gives the winner the ability to collect damages from the losing party, to place a judgment lien on the losing party’s real property, to garnish the losing party’s salary, or to attach the losing party’s personal property. It must be rendered for or against an actual litigant; individuals who are not named parties to a lawsuit cannot have rheir rights and liabilities adjudicated. Monetary judgments must be definite, specified with certainty, and expressed in words rather than figures. Judgments concerning real property must contain its description so that the land can easily be identified. Once a court makes a judgment, it must be dated and docketed with the court administrator’s office. Enforcement of the judgment is left to the parties of the lawsuit. If the defendant doesn’t pay the damages awarded to the plaintiff in a civil case, the plaintiff may ask for an execution of the judgment. The clerk of the court in such a case delivers the execution to the sheriff, commanding him to take and sell the property of the defendant and apply that money to the amount of the judgment. Once a judgment has been paid by the losing party in a lawsuit, that party is entitled to a formal discharge of the obligation, known as a satisfaction of judgment. This satisfaction is registered on the judgment docket.

  1. Substitute the italicized words and word combinations in the following sentences with the words you have found in activity 1.

After the court has found a solution to the disagreement between the parties, it formally announces the official court decision in which it establishes the rights and legal duties of the parties. The decision, meaning the end of the court's jurisdiction in the case, specifically indicates the type of legal compensation given to the winner. It may include money given in compensation; a court order, telling not to do something', the right to get payments from the losing party in a number of ways, such as the right to keep the losing party’s immovable material goods until it pays back the debt to you; the right to confiscate the losing party’s money, such as part of his or her regular payment at the place of employment, to settle a debt', the right to confiscate the losing party’s property by legal authority. One should remember that the rights indicated in the official court decision, which is registered at the court administrator’s office, apply only to the party involved in a lawsuit. If the defendant doesn’t obey the official court decision, carrying out of the court order may be done by force, and after the compensation has been paid by the losing party, that party is entitled to a formal discharge of the obligation.

  1. all.

    Listen to the text on the types of judgments in US courts and fill in the gaps. You will hear the text twice.

Different types of judgments are made, basing on the process the

(1) uses to make the final decision. A judgment on the

merits is a (2) arrived at after the facts have been

presented and the court has reached a final determination of which

(3) is correct. A party that receives a (4) on

the merits is barred from relitigating the same issue by the doctrine

of res judicata. This (5) establishes the principle that

an (6) that is judicially decided is decided once and for

A summary judgment may occur very early in the process of a (7). Under rule

56 of the Federal Rules of Civil (8) and analogous state rules, any party may make

a motion for a summary judgment on a claim, counterclaim, or cross- (9) when he

or she believes that there is no genuine issue of material fact and that he or she is (10)

to prevail as a matter of law. A court determines whether to grant (11) judgment.

A consent judgment, or agreed judgment, is a final (12) that is entered on

agreement of the litigants. Judgments of this type are generally (13) in domestic

relations cases after the husband and wife agree to a (14) and support settlement in

a divorce.

A default judgment results from the named (15)’s failure to appear in court or

from one party’s failure to take appropriate (16) steps. It is entered upon the failure

of the party to appear or to plead at an appropriate time. Before a (17) judgment is

entered, the defendant must be properly served (18) of the pending action. The

HE LETTER . 1

OF THE LAW 1

PREFACE 8

MODULE 1 14

THE SHIP OF STATE NEVER SLOWS DOWN IN A FOG 14

LESSON 1. GOVERNMENT IS KNOWN BY THE COUNTRY IT KEEPS 14

LESSON 2 A SUCCESSFUL EXECUTIVE DELEGATES ALL RESPONSIBILITY 67

MODULE 2 186

THE RULE OF LAW 186

LESSON 1. THE SUPREME LAW OF THE LAND 186

module з і 361

THE TIMES OF TRIAL 361

LESSON 2. EVIDENCE IS NOT ALWAYS PROOF 382

LESSON 3. EXPERT’S REPUTATION IS RASED ON WNAT OTHERS DO NOT KNOW 403

LESSON 4. OUR DECISION IS ‘MAYBE’ - AND THAT’S FINAL 426

TIME IS MONEY, BUT NOT IN JAIL 466

LESSON 1. OFFENSIVE MATERIALS 466

  1. Explain the meaning of the following word-combinations related to different types of judgments.

Arrive at a decision; on the merits; reach a final determination; negligence lawsuit; receive a judgment; be barred from; doctrine of res judicata', make a motion; claim; counterclaim; cross­claim; genuine issue of material fact; prevail as a matter of law; enter a decision on agreement of litigants; domestic relations cases; agree to property and support settlement; take appropriate

procedural steps; appear or to plead at appropriate time; be served notice of the pending action; form a basis for a judgment; in favor of; derive from a judicial sale; repay the debt.

  1. Work in pairs. Fill in the table below on the basis of exercises 1 and 3. Then use the table to tell your partner everything you know about judgments and enforcement.

•_ A JUDGMENT AND ITS ENFORCEMENT

What is a ‘judgment’ and what is its function?

What are the kinds of remedies?

What are the ways to collect damages from the losing party following the judgment?

Who is entitled to collect damages from the losing

party following the judgment?

What must monetary judgments contain?

What must real property judgments contain?

Where is the judgment registered?

How can judgments be enforced?

What happens after the judgment has been paid by the losing party?

What is a ‘judgment on the merits’ and when is it rendered?

What is a ‘summary judgment’ and when is it rendered?

What is a ‘consent judgment’ and when is it rendered?

What is a ‘default judgment’ and when is it rendered?

What is a ‘deficiency judgment’ and when is it rendered?

  1. Work in pairs. Fill in the blanks with suitable prepositions.

  1. A judgment lien may be placed the real estate the losing party.

  2. Once a court makes a judgment, it must be dated and docketed the court administrator’s

office.

  1. It must be rendered and an actual litigant.

-. A judgment the merits is a decision arrived after the facts have been presented.

  1. The satisfaction of judgment is certified the judgment docket.

  2. Any party may make a motion a summary judgment a claim, counterclaim or cross­claim.

  1. . a default judgment is entered, the defendant must be properly served notice the

pending action.

  1. Monetary judgments must be expressed words rather than figures.

  2. A default judgment is entered failure of the party to appear or to plead an

appropriate time.

  1. . a debtor’s failure to pay his or her obligations, a deficiency judgment is rendered

favour the creditor.

  1. Write a survey report on the main principles of judgments and enforcement in civil cases in the USA. Use the texts in this part of the lesson or any other materials you may come across. See also: Survey Report in the Recommendations on Creative Writing Work.

  2. Translate into English

Судове рішення - це рішення, що приймає суд або інша судова установа, яка вирішує суперечку й визначає права та зобов’язання кожної із сторін у правовому спорі. Судове рішення визначає сторону, яка виграла справу, й ті засоби правового захисту, які їй належать. У цивільних справах, якщо судове рішення виноситься на користь позивача, суд зазвичай виносить рішення про відшкодування збитків у вигляді грошової суми. Засоби правового захисту можуть включати не тільки грошову компенсацію завданої шкоди, а також і судову заборону. Судове рішення дає можливість стороні, що виграла справу, стягувати компенсацію за збитки, застосовувати заставне право на підставі судового рішення, вимагати відрахування частини заробітної плати боржника в рахунок погашення боргу, накладати арешт на майно. Судове рішення стосується лише дійсних учасників судового процесу - позивача й відповідача. Інші особи, які не є сторонами у судовій справі, не можуть внаслідок прийняття такого рішення одержати законно визнані права або нести відповідальність, визначену згаданим рішенням. Примусове виконання судового рішення має ініціюватися сторонами у спорі. Якщо відповідач не сплачує збитки позивачу, то останній має право на примусове виконання зобов’язання, відоме як виконання судового рішення. Судовий секретар передає судовий наказ про виконання рішення шерифу, вимагаючи від нього конфіскувати й продати особисте, а за необхідності, й реальне майно боржника. Коли платіж на виконання винесеного судового рішення здійснено стороною, що програла спір, остання має право на визнання формального виконання зобов’язання, відоме як виконання судового рішення. Таке виконання засвідчується внесенням відповідної інформації до книги реєстрації судових рішень.

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