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Unit 5. Legal latin

Read and translate the text below:

Frequent latin expressions in legal context

In the Medieval Europe Latin would be the language of lawyers, theologians and doctors. Thus, Latin terms and expressions are a legitimate heritage of Roman law in legal English. Some Latin-derived expressions, as we know, are deeply integrated in everyday language, such as per cent or et cetera; others are mostly confined to special applications. In contracts and other legal instruments, it is difficult to avoid using, where appropriate, such expressions as mutatis mutandis, ad hoc or prima facie, since a legal concept underlying each of these expressions is somewhat more specific that their literal translation into English. Other expressions, although quite replaceable and, indeed, often replaced with their English equivalents, are used by many lawyers due to a long-standing tradition: bona fide, inter alia, supra (infra) etc.. To show a distinction between Latin and English words, the former are typically italicized.


1. Read and remember the following:

mutatis mutandis

with appropriate amendments/с соответствующими изменениями

inter alia

among other things/помимо прочего

ad hoc

for this specific case/специальный; специально созданный

ex officio

according to one’s position/в соответствии с занимаемой должностью; по должности

prima facie

sufficient, unless the opposite is demonstrated/достаточно, если не доказано иное

bona fide

good faith, fair/добросовестно; добросовестный

ab initio

from the beginning; from the date of execution (of an instrument)/с самого начала; с момента подписания документа

per annum


res judicata

“case determined”; judicial precedent/прецедент


below/above (in a text)/ниже/выше


1. Translate the statements given below paying attention to the italicized Latin expressions:

1) The Parties agree that the procedure described in Article 2.2 shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to the payment of the purchase price for the Transfer Shares and transfer of title to the Transfer Shares.

2) The Company shall be entitled, at its sole discretion, to withdraw from this Agreement executed by the Company within a period of forty-five (45) days, and the provisions of Article 10 shall apply to such withdrawal, mutatis mutandis.

3) The Board of Directors shall consist of five (5) members, of which one member shall be nominated by the Bank; one member shall be an individual not affiliated with the Shareholders, to be nominated by agreement of the Shareholders; one member shall be the General Director of the Company serving ex officio; and the remaining two members shall be nominated by the Russian Investor.

4) The representations and warranties made by the Seller in the Project Documents, including, inter alia, this Agreement, shall remain true and complete on and as of the Closing Date.

5) In any arbitral proceeding, the certificate of the Bank as to the amount of the Obligations due to the Bank shall be prima facie evidence of such amount.

6) The provisions of Articles 10.4 and 10.5 shall respectively apply, mutatis mutandis, also to each of the Company’s Shareholders.

7) Any dispute shall be finally and exclusively settled by ad hoc arbitration in London, England, in accordance with the procedures set forth below by a panel of three arbitrators and without recourse to courts of law.

8) A Third Party Transfer shall be carried out by the Vendor as a bona fide transaction at a price no less than the price indicated in the Pre-emption Notice.

9) The Directors are required to act bona fide in the interests of the Company.

10) The court ruled that the contract was null and void ab initio.

11) Interest on the principal of the Loan shall be payable at a rate of eight per cent (8%) per annum.

12) The ruling of the Moscow Arbitration Court should be treated as a res judicata for the purpose of this arbitration proceeding (see supra, para. 25).

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