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Навчальний посібник

з граматики

для студентів 3 курсу

факультету «Референт-перекладач»

за темою «Умовний спосіб»

Навчальний посібник призначено для самостійної та аудиторної роботи студентів 3 курсу факультету «Референт-перекладач». Він містить правила функціонування умовного способу, ілюстровані науковим фактичним матеріалом, а також вправи, складені з урахуванням послідовної самостійної роботи студентів над темою.

Посібник складено відповідно до програми з курсу граматики для студентів 3 курсу факультету «Референт-перекладач».

СONTENTS

Mood ………………………………………………………………………

The subjunctive ..…………………………………………………………...

The use of forms expressing unreality in simple sentences and

independent clauses and in a special type of exclamatory sentences………

The conditional …………………………………………………………….

Wishing …………………………………………………………………….

Indirect speech and reporting ………………………………………………

Revision…………………………………………………………………….

Tables………………………………………………………………………

MOOD

§ 1.

MOOD is the form of the verb which shows the relation between the action expressed by the predicate verb and reality. This relation is established by the speaker. The speaker may wish to represent an action as a real fact or as a command (a request) or as something unreal, something that doesn’t exist in reality. Actions represented as real facts are expressed by THE INDICATIVE MOOD.

Architects have done some very good work, too, in designing new schools.

Commands and requests are expressed by THE IMPERATIVE MOOD.

Don’t be a fool.

§ 2.

We find a great variety of forms expressing unreality in present-day English, but all the forms denoting unreality may be subdivided into two groups according to their meaning.

Some of them are used for representing an action as problematic, i.e. the speaker doesn’t know whether the action will take place or not, the realization of this action is doubtful.

They suggested that Meg should stay with them for another week.

Other forms express actions contradicting reality, i.e. actions which can’t be realized.

I wish I had seen the procession.

Accordingly we can speak about two different Moods: THE CONDITIONAL MOOD, which represents an action as contradicting reality, and THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD, which shows an action as problematic.

The choice of forms expressing unreality depends on:

  • The structure of the sentence.

  • The type of the subordinate clause in which this form occures.

  • It can be determined by the attitude of the speaker towards the action expressed in the sentences.

The subjunctive

§ 3.

The subjunctive is very rare in modern British English. Some other languages have a regular subjunctive form to express possibility, uncertainty and hypothetical conditions, but we usually use modal verbs which generally represent actions as problematic.

§ 4.

The present subjunctive has exactly the same form as the infinitive; therefore the present subjunctive of to be is be for all persons, and the present subjunctive of all other verbs is the same as their present tense except that -s is not added for the third person singular:

The queen lives here. (simple present tense)

Long live the queen! (subjunctive)

§ 5.

The past subjunctive has exactly the same form as the simple past except that with the verb be the past subjunctive form is either I/he/she/it was or I/he/she/it were. In expressions of doubt or unreality were is more usual than was:

He behaves as though he were the owner. (But he is not the owner.)

In conversation, however, was is often used instead of were.

§ 6.

There are three areas in which we regularly use THE SUBJUNCTIVE:

a) a small number of fixed formulas and phrases (the formulaic subjunctive);

b) the were patterns for hypothetical situations (the were- subjunctive);

c) the so-called mandative use, when we are trying to get something done (the mandative subjunctive).

§ 7.