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Benjamin Franklin

Unit II STUDYING EXPERIENCE

Содержание образования, образовательная деятельность, предметы, оценки…

Грамматика: времена Perfect & Perfect Continuous; Future –in-the Past, согласование времен, косвенная речь

Сочетания с глаголами широкой семантики: take, get, make – do…

Introductory Text

The school curriculum and academic programs

THE SCHOOL CURRICULUM. We see the curriculum in terms of what the children and teachers do and what they learn from this, so we talk about experience and understanding. We aim to provide that the children will learn and for the ideas and information they will encounter . We teach to develop the children's language through both their experience and a stimulating environment, so that they learn to speak fluently, accurately and with confidence, to read, write and spell, to listen and to think imaginatively, to question and discuss. We work to engender a love of books and a desire to read for pleasure and information.

ACADEMIC PROGRAMS. The academic programs differ greatly in various universities. Students may concentrate in any academic departments and must take a special number of compulsory courses. However, they may simultaneously be involved in one or more interdepartmental programs. Students are free in selecting all courses available, which gives them a considerable flexibility in creating their own academic programs. Thus, there are no two identical undergraduate careers, especially in prestigious universities.

Nowadays, most college programs are in the form of what is called liberal arts. The emphasis in liberal arts education is placed on literacy in science, appreciation of arts, the development of critical thinking, and an understanding of our own and other cultures. It is aimed at giving the students a broad-based education. This means that over four years students take courses in history and humanities, social and political science, economics and psychology, natural science and mathematics, and even fine arts (music, sculpture, painting). Such liberal education provides an enormous advantage in fierce competition for entrance to the job market or professional and graduate schools, for many employers nowadays look for young people with analytic, problem-solving, and interpersonal skills, broad knowledge background and flexibility of mind complemented by the ability to learn and adjust to changes.

The tuition fees alone are rather high (ranging from $10,000 for an academic year at Harvard or Yale to under $1,000 at small public institutions). However, colleges are eager to help needy students who are able and highly motivated with scholarships, loans, as well as special programs (e.g. work-study programs, financial assistance programs) that are provided by the states and federal governments. In addition, an ever-increasing number of students hold jobs besides studying. These part-time jobs may be either “on campus*” (in the dormitories, cafeterias, services, in research and teaching), or “off campus” (with local firms, in offices, etc.). In this way, for example, more than half of all students at Stanford University earn a significant part of their college expenses during the school year, and the average scholarship is $4,500 per year. Thus, any student who really wants to can finance his education.

Most universities require mid-semester and final (end-of-semester) examinations. They are usually written. Mid-terms are given during class time, finals are held during the last week of the semester, each lasts three hours. Students may have two finals a day, which means six hours of writing. For classes like history, literature, or even science there are essay questions; for math there are problems to solve. Since it takes time for teachers to grade such written exams, students receive their grades in the mail a month, or two later. It is possible, as a great many students have learned, to “flunk out” of the university, that is to be asked to leave because of poor grades. So, many students who have scholarships must maintain a certain grade average to keep their scholarships.

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