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A case for smokeless zones

(ALAN ROAD reports on the new moves to ban smoking

In Britain’s offices).

When tobacco clouds from the pipe of a pensive draftsman activated the smoke detection system in an office of a giant multi-national company recently, fire appliances were dispatched from three neighbouring authorities to deal with the imagined danger.

While medical research has conclusively identified tobacco as a threat to the smoker’s own health, the dangers to innocent bystanders of what might be called nicotine fallout have yet to be proved beyond doubt. This has not prevented unilateralists calling for the banning of smoking in an increasing number of offices.

Nicotine traps

David Simpson, a director of ASH, the anti-tobacco group, says that unsolicited inquiries from the public about workplace policies on smoking are growing apace. “In the past six months a lot more calls have been coming from the employers’ side,” he pointed out.

Indeed, so impressed have he and his colleagues been by this phenomenon that they are planning to set up a management consultancy to advise large companies on formulating no-smoking policies.

Staff in the Normaliar Garrett product support division at Bournemouth Airport were happy enough to welcome the introduction of a no-smoking rule for their newly- opened office accommodation, says personnel manager Andy Braley.

All too many employers seem more concerned with the wellbeing of the hi-tech equipment than of their staff. Some, says David Simpson, ignore doctors’ pleas that certain workers should not be obliged to share offices with the smokers. “Yet down the corridor they have installed a mainframe computer and readily enforce a smoking ban there”.

Nor are trade unions above criticism. One has threatened legal action against a secretary who collated photographic evidence of the caused by smokers inn her office. Local authorities have led the way with the introduction of office smoking bans.

Ashfold Borough Council are in the middle of a two–year transition period. “It may sound long–winded,” says personnel officer John Styles, “but the only way a decision can be enforced is if it is backed up with a collective agreement.” And so a detailed questionnaire was circulated to the counsil’s500 office workers, who opted – with very few exceptions – for a smoking ban.

Lawyer Gillion Howard approves of Ashford’s softly-softly approach. “You can’t a no-smoking rule overnight,” she told me. A tribunal recently ruled that a firm of Birmingham insurance brokers who had done just that were in breach of contract, said Ms Howard, who specialises in occupational health matters and has advised a number of Industrial Society clients on smoking policies.

Pipe dream

“If you’re going to have a rule that a whole building goes non-smoking, then you’ve got to allow employees to go into the open air and have a drag,” she warned.

While she concerned that the dangers of passive smoking are yet to be recognized by the courts, she forecast that the day will come when will be so certain and so well-publicised in the press that employers will be obliged to take precautionary measures to protect their non-smoking. Meanwhile, she urges employers not to postpone action till then.

One positive step they can take immediately is to recruit only non – smokers. The Royal College of Nursing who recently advertised the post of PA to the general secretary, stipulated that applications from smokers would not be welcome , she recalled. “ It is lawful to refuse to employ someone because they smoke,” Miss Howard emphasised. “There is no anti-discrimination legislation for smokers.” Contracts for new recruits could, therefore, contain an undertaking that they agree to no-smoking rules. “If employees break the terms of that contract, they can be counselled, warned verbally and in writing and then dismissed.”

Clean air for non-smokers may soon no longer be a pipe dream.

. by Alan Road.

Vocabulary

move - движение

ban - запрещать

clouds - мн.ч. здесь: клубы

pipe - трубка

pensive - задумчивый, мечтательный

draftsman - составитель законопроектов

detection - определение, выявление

giant - гигантский, огромный

recently - недавно

fire appliance - противопожарная установка

authorities - власти

deal (with) - иметь дело (с)

imagined - воображаемый

conclusively - здесь: убедительно

identify - выявит, определить

threat - угроза

innocent - невинный

bystander - свидетель, очевидец

fall-out - осадки

prove - доказать

beyond doubt - вне сомнения

prevent - предотвратить

unilateralist - выступающий заодно

increasing - растущий

trap - ловушка

unsolicited - незапрашиваемый

inquiry - исследование

apace - быстро

point out - указывать

impressed - потрясенный

support - поддерживать

division - подразделение, отделение

introduction - здесь: введение

personnel manager - начальник Отдела Кадров

be concerned with - беспокоиться (из-за)

well-being - здесь: состояние

plea - просьба, мольба

certain - щпределенный

obliged - обязанный

share an office - быть в одном офисе

install - установить

enforce - проводить в жизнь

trade union - профсоюз

threaten - угрожать

collate - сличать, тщательно сравнивать

evidence - доказательство, улика

danger - опасность

cause - вызывать, быть причиной

council - совет

transition - переходный

long-winded - многоречивый, скучный

back-up - поддерживать

detailed - подробный

questionnaire - анкета

circulate - распространять

opt (for) - выбрать (из других)

lawyer - юрист

approve - одобрить

soft - мягкий

introduce - вводить

overnight - за одну ночь, мгновенно

tribunal - трибунал, суд

insurance - страховой

breach - нарушение

occupational - профессиональный

advise - советовать

allow - позволять

have a drag - сленг: сделать затяжку

warn - предупреждать

concede - допускать, соглашаться

recognise - признавать

court - суд

forecast - предсказывать

precautionary measures - меры предосторожности

protect - защищать

meanwhile - тем временем

urge - убеждать, настаивать

postpone - откладывать

immediately - немедленно

recruit - принимать на работу

stipulate - ставить условием

application - заявление

recall - вспоминать

lawful - законный

refuse - отказывать(ся)

emphasise - подчеркивать, выделять

legislation - законодательство

undertaking - обязательство

break the terms - нарушить условия

counsel - советовать

verbally - вербально, устно

dismiss - увольнять

Word Study.

Ex. 1. Match the phrases with their Russian equivalents:

  1. transition period a/ воображаемая опасность

  2. detailed questionnaire b/ никотиновые осадки

3. beyond doubt c/ переходный период

  1. precautionary measures d/ профсоюз

  2. positive step e/ вне сомнений

6. tobacco clouds f/ гигантская компания

  1. trade union g/ невинный свидетель

  2. well-being of hi-tech equipment h/ подробная анкета

9. imagined danger i/ угроза здоровью других

  1. giant company j/ меры предосторожности

  2. pensive draftsman k/ положительный шаг/мера/

12. sensitive detector m/ клубы дыма

  1. threat to one's health l/ задумчивый составитель законопроектов

  2. innocent bystander n/ состояние высококлассной техники

15. nicotine fall-out o/ чувствительный детектор

Ex. 2. Match the phrases with their Russian equivalents:

  1. to keep the rules a/ защитить некурящих

  2. to grow apace b/ быть признанным судом

3. to ban smoking c/ быстро расти

  1. to break the terms (of) d/ быть в одном офисе

  2. to enforce a smoking ban e/ запрещать курение

6. to do smth. overnight f/ соблюдать правила

  1. to formulate no-smoking policy g/ нарушать условия

  2. to protect non-smokers h/ одобрить мягкий подход

9. to approve a soft approach i/ объявить о вакансии

  1. to be recognised by courts j/ проводить запрет на курение в жизнь

11. to share an office k/ принимать на работу некурящих

  1. to advertise the post (of) l/ предупредить устно

  2. to recruit non-smokers m/ делать за одну ночь, мгновенно

14. to warn verbally n/ сформировать политику некурения

  1. to breach a contract o/ нарушить контракт

Ex. 3. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Когда клубы дыма от трубки задумчивого составителя законопроектов

активизировали детекторную систему в офисе одной гигантской компании, и

соседи принесли антипожарные устройства, чтобы справиться с воображаемой

опасностью.

2. Табак является угрозой для здоровья курильщиков, но сейчас

известно всем, что находиться в одном офисе с курильщиками вредно и для

некурящих.

3. Люди, думающие о здоровье нации, призывают к введению запрета

на курение в общественных местах и, в частности, в офисах.

  1. Работодатели слишком озабочены состоянием высококлассной техники, но не состоянием здоровья своих сотрудников.

5. Но профсоюзы находятся вне критики.

  1. Местные власти проводят в жизнь запрет на курение в офисе.

7. Но они считают, что запрет можно ввести только при наличии коллективного

соглашения.

8. Одна фирма распространила подробную анкету среди 500 своих

сотрудников, которые - за исключением немногих - выступили за запрет на

курение.

9. Конечно, нельзя ввести зарпет за одну ночь (мгновенно).

10. Необходима широкая рекламная кампания (campaign), чтобы убедить людей

отказаться от курения (give up smoking).

  1. Сейчас уже вполне законно отказывать курящим в приеме на работу.

  2. Новые сотрудники должны подписывать контракт, согласно которому они

обязуются не курить в офисе.

13. Если они нарушают данное правило, сначала последует устное

предупреждение, затем - письменное, после чего они могут быть уволены.

14. Такая политика требует времени, но это делается в целях защиты здоровья

нации.

Comprehension Check.

Answer the following questions:

1. How does medical research identify the threat of tobacco to people?

2. What are many employers concerned with?

3. What do local authorities of Ashford do to introduce the office smoking ban?

4. Is is legal to refuse to recruit someone because they smoke?

5. What do newly-written contracts contain?

6. What will be done with those who break the no-smoking rules?

Topics to discuss.

1. Tobacco danger for non-smokers.

2. Soft approach to introducing a smoking ban.

  1. Contracts for new recruits.

Grammar Exercises

Ex.1 Find the subject and state what it is expressed by . Translate the sentences into Russian.

  1. What I want is fresh air.

  2. The young must be in the first ranks.

  3. Learning about other cultures is interesting.

  4. Three and four make seven.

  5. Everyone was silent for a minute.

  6. The wounded were taken great care of.

  7. His being late influenced his career.

  8. To live is to work.

  9. Watching the sunrise, the couple felt happy.

  10. A journalist knocked on our door one afternoon.

  11. They say she knows French perfectly.

  12. Who is to blame?

  13. After the show, the crowd applauded and screamed for fifteen minutes.

  14. Should we leave now?

  15. In a couple of months, Ellen and Mary became close friends.

  16. One wants to live forever.

  17. His was a happy life.

  18. For over an hour, my father and uncle have been fixing the furnace.

  19. Being polite to other people is important.

  20. Jim has always been a good problem solver.

  21. For her to come was impossible.

Ex.2 Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the pronoun it used as the subject.

  1. It isn’t hard to make friends.

  2. How far is it from your home to the office?

  3. It’s six o’clock now. I think it’s too early to get up.

  4. The teacher said that it was important for the students to finish the experiment in time.

  5. It’ll be interesting for us to meet again.

  6. I wonder if it will rain tomorrow.

  7. We decided to stay at home because it was snowing hard.

  8. It’s wrong to cheat during a test.

  9. The door suddenly opened. It was opened by a young girl who was looking rather strange.

  10. Let’s go out if it stops raining.

  11. Do you think it’ll be easy for you to live in a foreign country?

  12. It was growing dark and we hurried to return home.

Ex.3 Insert there or it. Translate the sentences into Russian.

  1. The clock struck nine ….. was no sign of any of the other guests.

  2. ….. is important to be polite to other people.

  3. I am afraid ….. is no use even trying to prevent it.

  4. We were sure ….. was a rule for such cases, but we couldn’t remember it, though.

  5. ….. was quite chilly in the dining-room.

  6. Then ….. was a sudden burst of applause, ….. was unexpected for the actors.

  7. ….. was five kilometres from the rancho to the town, …..was quite possible to drive to town every day.

  8. ….. was easy for the students to speak English to us.

  9. ….. remained only to sign the will.

  10. ….. isn’t much fun to have a cold.

  11. ….. grew dark outside.

Ex.4 Find the predicate. Translate the sentences into Russian.

  1. The oceans affect weather.

  2. Twenty rolls of wallpaper were delivered to the office.

  3. She couldn’t help crying.

  4. Nothing is going to happen to you, I suppose everything will be O.K.

  5. I will have gone by then.

  6. Everyone remained silent.

  7. They must have played soccer for three hours without stopping.

  8. Will the universe expand forever?

  9. According to the scientists’theory, the universe began with a huge explosion.

  10. He went on eating in silence.

  11. She used to meet with her friends at a small cafe.

  12. In May, I will have worked at Kodak for 5 years.

  13. From now on, the entire family must help with the housework.

  14. At last, an honest person is running for mayor.

  15. Every Tuesday night between eight and nine o’clock, Helen would practice her roller skating.

  16. Are you taking an aerobics class?

  17. The cars and trucks are covered with snow.

  18. I thought that all I was doing was tying to help her.

Ex. 5 Fill in the blanks with one of the following link -verbs.

To sound, to become, to seem, to appear, to come, to be, to look, to get, to fall, to go

  1. His brother often …... relaxed and happy.

  2. Tracy ….. a medical technician.

  3. This sunny weather ….. a pleasant surprise.

  4. You often ….. worried.

  5. Hurry up! It ….. late.

  6. The child soon …. fast asleep in her mother’s arms.

  7. The dreams of his life ….true.

  8. He understood that he was in a trap. His face …. tense.

  9. Jerry ….sleepy today.

  10. We …. awake all night.

  11. Aunt Claudia sometimes ….a little strange.

  12. Ronda always ….the best debater on the team.

  13. Andrew ….more and more alarmed.

  14. The actress …. rapidly famous.

  15. On seeing him she ….as pale as death.

Ex.6 Translate the following into Russian paying attention to the predicatives. State by what part of speech they are expressed.

  1. Further events were of great significance.

  2. Beauty is everlasting.

  3. You are nobody.

  4. This orange tastes bitter.

  5. I’m afraid I can’t keep my word.

  6. She is a very talented singer.

  7. He was the first to rush into the room.

  8. His first wish was to go away and the sooner, the better.

  9. The events were beyond her understanding.

  10. My favourite sport is jogging.

  11. Eliza was greatly surprised.

Ex.7 Open the brackets using the infinitives in the proper form. Pay attention to the rules of agreement.

  1. “Little Dorrit” (to be written) by Ch. Dickens.

  2. There (to be) much traffic at night and many people on the streets.

  3. Neither I or my brother (to be) to blame.

  4. Everybody (to be) glad to see him again.

  5. The day was warm and many people (to be sitting) at their doors.

  6. Their (to be) plenty of rooms at the hotel.

  7. Twenty divided by five (equal) four.

  8. My brother as well as I (to be) ready to help you.

  9. Three metres (to be) not enough for this dress.

  10. Official news (to be) sad.

  11. Don’t move! The police (to be) all over the place.

  12. It (to be) only you who can find the way out of this situation.

  13. It (to be) all the money? You are kidding!

  14. Classical and light music (to have) both their admirers.

Ex.8 Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the kind of object.

  1. She pretended not to hear.

  2. He found it impossible to make one more step.

  3. The policeman ordered them to stop.

  4. The parents were proud of their children.

  5. Why do you insist on my doing it?

  6. When he came home, he found a lot of guests in his dining-room.

  7. I envied him all my life.

  8. We are going to buy little Tommy a toy on his birthday.

  9. The teacher dictated to the students the names of the books to be read for their examination.

  10. I’ll give my present to you tomorrow.

  11. Forgive me my being rude to you.

  12. The captain asked the soldier his name.

  13. I’ll retell this story to you later.

  14. I am glad to hear these words, I hope they are sincere.

Ex.9 Translate into English.

  1. Объясните мне, пожалуйста, значение этого слова.

  2. Он посвящал своему хобби все свободное время.

  3. Студентам преподают немецкий как второй язык.

  4. Это задание было дано ей, а не вам.

  5. Что вам сказали?

  6. Ей простили ее ошибку.

  7. Передайте мне соль, пожалуйста.

  8. Оставьте записку для него у секретаря.

  9. Нам показали список гостей, которые будут приглашены.

  10. Ему потребовалось совсем немного времени для того, чтобы выучить эти правила.

  11. Я сказал тебе об этом заранее, чтобы ты была готова услышать это сообщение спокойно, хотя бы внешне.

  12. Вот статья, отдай ее редактору.

  13. Отец велел не уходить из дома до его возвращения.

  14. Я не пыталась влиять на него, он уже принял решение.

  15. У меня к вам есть несколько вопросов.

  16. Помоги мне решить эту задачу, пожалуйста.

Ex.10 Find the attribute and say by what it is expressed. Translate the sentences into Russian.

  1. This information is very important.

  2. There are many new methods of teaching.

  3. It was not a matter to be discussed even with her close friend.

  4. Our plans have suddenly changed.

  5. She was always the last to leave the classroom.

  6. A tender smile lit Mary’s face.

  7. There was something mysterious about this man.

  8. What time do you usually have dinner?

  9. His mother’s nerves would never stand this news.

  10. Imagine the idea of his coming into my life again!

  11. The problem mentioned in the article turned out to unexpectedly interesting.

  12. His business instinct was faultless.

  13. She always said some polite words to the people she had dinner with.

  14. She was pale with terror.

  15. An officer, standing beside her, was unknown.

Ex.11 Point out the kind of adverbial modifier, and state by what it is expressed. Translate the sentences into Russian.

  1. In two days she was well again.

  2. After receiving her answer to his proposal, he felt ill at ease.

  3. She had to talk to him because of her being too polite.

  4. They were a bit surprised at seeing me.

  5. Why do you always look at things with such practical eyes?

  6. He usually drank his wine at one gulp.

  7. They decided to meet near the entrance to the theatre.

  8. The effect of the medicine was unexpectedly strong.

  9. She darted on like a wind but it was too late, her rival had come to the goal long before her.

  10. We came back because of heavy snow.

  11. They have gathered to discuss some problems.

  12. The performance is rather good, I should say.

  13. David and Mary often sat side by side among the hills.

  14. When questioned, she explained everything.

  15. She left the room without saying good-bye to anybody.

  16. He stopped and looked at his wife, his eyes extremely proud.

  17. My sister does everything much better then I.

  18. He stared at her embarrassed as if he did not understand her.

Ex.12 Complete the following sentences using your own possible adverbial modifiers.

  1. of time:

  1. The parents hope to see their son ….

  2. We often went to the theatre ….

  3. …. I couldn’t understand her.

  4. She smiled ….

  5. It was raining ….

  6. They will be ready ….

  7. You should be careful …

  8. …. he nodded and left.

  1. of place:

  1. She sat …looking at ….

  2. He was waiting for us ….

  3. We were seated ….

  4. John put his hand ….

  5. Mary enjoyed walking ….

  6. Our guide offered us to pass …

  1. of degree:

  1. I see you are ….happy.

  2. We were …. priviledged to be invited to this dinner party.

  3. This work tired us ….

  4. The effect of her words was …. unexpected for her.

  5. The weather is …. very nasty today.

  6. I am …. surprised to see you safe and sound. The situation was …. dangerous.

  1. of manner and attending circumstances:

  1. They returned …

  2. She behaved ….

  3. We were talking … not to disturb the neighbors ….

  4. I can’t imagine him acting ….

  5. “Who’s there?” she asked ….

  6. He put on his coat ….

Ex.13: Add to where necessary. blank.

  1. 1. I have to go downtown tomorrow.

  2. 2. Tom can 0 play soccer.

  3. Could you please ______ open the window?

  4. The students must ______ learn all of the irregular verbs.

  5. Sally has ______ do her history report tonight.

  6. I think you should ______ take better care of yourself.

  7. I ought ______ go to the post office this afternoon.

  8. Would you ______ speak more slowly, please?

  9. We may ______ go to Argentina for our vacation.

  10. Will you please ______ mail this letter for me?

  11. Tom and I might ______ play tennis after work tomorrow.

  12. You had better ______ see a doctor.

  13. We can ______ go shopping tomorrow.

  14. The students have ______ take a test next Friday.

  15. I have got ______ go to the post office this afternoon.

  16. Shouldn't you ______ save a little money for a rainy day?

  17. Poor Edward. He has ______ go to the hospital for an operation.

  18. Alex! Stop! You must not ______ run into the street when there's traffic!

  19. May I please ______ have the salt and pepper? Thanks.

  20. You'd better not ______ come to the meeting late. The boss will ______ be angry if you're late.

  21. I've had a lot of trouble sleeping the last few nights. I've got _____ get a good night's sleep! I can barely ______ stay awake in class.

Ex.14: Complete the dialogues. Use should, ought to, or had better.

Choose from the expressions in the list or use your own words.

borrow some money

call the landlord and complain

call the police

drink a glass of waterfind a new apartment

find a new girlfriend

get a job

go back to the restaurant and ask if

someone found them hold your breath

marry somebody who is rich

put cotton in your ears

see a dentist

send her a dozen roses

soak it in cold water

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