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Step 2: Spelling and Vocabulary

Exercise 1: Match a word with a picture (not all the pictures have their names!)

Plate 2

The Etruscan Art

  1. Etruscan temple __

  2. portico __

The Roman Art

  1. aqueduct __

  2. centrally-planned building __

  3. portico __

  4. cupola __

  5. triumphal arch __

Plate 6

Historical Costumes

  1. Roman woman ___

  2. toupee wig (partial wig) ___

  3. stola ___

  4. palla, a coloured wrap ___

  5. Roman man ___

  6. tunica (tunic) ___

  7. toga ___

  8. purple border (purple band) ___

Exercise 2: Developing spelling skills. Copy the words arranging them in the alphabetical order, remember the spelling.

Unique, quite, vivid, antique, naturalism, invade, temple, goddess, dome, mythological, symmetry, original, expansion, bourgeois, personality, religion, worship, legal, known, Julius, height, Christianity, figure.

Exercise 3: Derivatives. With the help of the given words form new words, denoting a person having a certain occupation or job. Underline the suffixes you use.

Conquer – conqueror

Empire - _____________

Manage - ____________

Lead - ______________

History - _____________

Spectacle - ___________

Rule - _______________

Prison - ______________

Music - ______________

War - ________________

Dance - ______________

Art - ________________


Exercise 4: Sentence openings. To avoid monotony in speech introduce the sentence with a suitable adverbial modifier or a phrase modifier. You may begin the sentence by expressing your attitude to what you are saying. Choose which one suits the given sentences best (variations possible). Use: Eventually, it’s not surprising, it’s hard to begin at the beginning, in essence, actually, perhaps, in fact, indeed.

  1. Rome adopted a new religion – Christianity.

  2. When Constantine decided to borrow from the past, he foresaw that his memorial arch would be the last on Roman soil.

  3. In the age of Augustus the personality cult of the emperor was still relatively subdued.

  4. The Latins were a bourgeois, agricultural people.

  5. There’s much controversy over just where and when the Roman civilization began.

  6. Even after it’s collapse Roman laws and artistic traditions persisted in many parts of Europe.

  7. The Roman Empire was too great for one central authority to maintain control and keep its entire people free from ethnic and religious conflicts.

  8. It is probably because there is little else that survives to compare with it, that we prize the art of Pompeii and its neighbors so highly.

Make up your own sentences on the model speaking about Ancient Rome.

Exercise 5: Match the sentences contrasting the ideas. Use while or on the contrary.

  1. The Roman temple is usually part of the urban scene, so it is raised on a high podium to give it emphasis.

  1. In the Greek temple columns and structures decorated the exterior.

  1. The Greeks sought the ideal.

  1. The Greeks used analogies of man and god to describe historical events.

a) The interior was relatively simple.

b) The Romans preferred the ordinary and everyday.

c) The Romans preferred to see the actual events in complete, everyday, factual detail.

d) The Greek temple does not need this architectural emphasis.

Exercise 6: Revise the vocabulary dealing with Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome and write a dictation.

STEP 3: Punctuation and Logic

(study the rules in Reference Section).

Exercise 1: Put capitals, hyphens, full stops and commas as needed in the following passages; the number of sentences is indicated in brackets.

  1. during the period of the old kingdom (3000-2400 BC) the basic forms of art came into existence in egypt architecture played the major role among them at that time colossal edifices were built, such as the tombs of the pharaohs the pyramids and the tombs of the nobility upon the walls of which reliefs were carved (3)

  2. the statue of hyacinth, attributed to pythagoras of rhegium is evidence of the realist features of greek art in the first half of the fifth century bc the famous sculptor gave the lean supple body of the youth spatial life hyacinth is portrayed watching the flight of the discus with intense interest (3)

  3. the distinctive feature of roman art was the sculptural portrait roman sculptors whose names are unknown to us portrayed in marble with great realism their contemporaries statesmen philosophers emperors military leaders and distinguished roman men and women (1)

  4. the roman sculptors of the second and third centuries not confining themselves to a realistic representation of man's external appearance strove to reveal his inner world they were in fact the originators of the psychological portrait (2)

  5. from the very outset clay and marble were the preferred materials for artistic creativity human figures were the preferred subjects and a pronounced sense of measure governed the forms that were produced (1)

  6. the archaic period (about 700-480 bc) saw a rise of all the arts throughout greece perhaps the single most important development was the emergence of monumental stone sculpture in the round and in relief compared with egyptians renderings the body is lifelike becoming ever more so as sculptors acquired the ability to render not only how it looked but also how it moved (3)

  7. if the archaic manner of representation depicted the appearance of a subject with maximum clarity artists of the classic period (480-323 bc) began to introduce the realities of spaca time, and character the medium of sculpture reached its most exalted expression in the friezes metopes and pediments of the parthenon in athens. The aspects of human activity that classic artists favored were those emphasizing human strengths nobility in victory valor in battle restraint in mourning (3)

  8. with the rise of macedon under philip II and alexander the great the hellenistic period saw the fields of creative energy displaced from the Greek heartland attic and the peloponnesos to the periphery including southern italy and asia minor the great age of athens was past when the romans conquered and destroyed corinth in 146 bc the transfer of primacy was consummated (3)

  9. it was the roman achievement to hold its vast and diverse domains by a formal system of laws moreover by endowing the symbols of its jurisdiction with the qualities so ardently assimilated from the greek world they became an integral part of what is called western civilization (2)

Exercise 2: Arrange the sentences logically within a passage.

  1. The most eminent Greek sculptors during the Golden Age were Myron, Polyclitus, and Pheidias. Myron, who worked in bronze and whose work survived only in Roman copies, was the creator of the famous statue Discobolus. The basic theme of the classical period is the portrayal of the athlete, the bold, valiant defender of his native town, as well as the representation of the gods who personified the wealth and power of the state.

  2. This representation personified the unshakable power of the Athenian state. The name of Pheidias is associated with the imposing architectural and sculptural ensemble of the Acropolis in Athens. The temple was adorned with a statue, twelve meters in height, of Athena Parthenos; her clothes and armor were made of gold, the face and hands of ivory. The works of Pheidias have not survived. In this city in the fifth century BC there was erected the marble temple of the Parthenon in honor of the goddess Athena. The Roman copy of a fifth century marble statue of Athens gives us some idea of Pheidias's style; the warrior goddess is portrayed in a calm, majestic pose, leaning against a spear, her head is crowned with a helmet, and the dress, descending in a series of folds, emphasizes the grandeur of the frontally portrayed figure.

  3. The powerful figure of Heracles and the body of the beast are represented in such a way that the group can be viewed from all angles. The marble group called Heracles Slaying the Lion of Nemea is a reduced-size copy of a bronze sculpture by Lysippus from a series devoted to the twelve labors of Heracles. His work crowned the achievements of Greek art of the fifth and fourth centuries BC. The sculptor depicts the climax of the duel between man and beast. Heracles is strangling the lion, which, as its strength is sapped, sinks down onto its hind paws. The extent of Lysippus's creative scope can be seen from his sculptural portraits.

  4. Significant differences appear from period to period, but the reason why a consistent aesthetic endured for some three thousand years lie in the Egyptian conceptions of time and space, which can be linked significantly with the physical setting that gave birth to one of the most splendid civilizations of the ancient world: the Nile Valley. The qualities that characterize the art of ancient Egypt - such as rigidity of pose and the use of contradictory perspectives in portraying the human figure - remained consistent for the greater part of Egyptian history. They originated in the Early Dynastic Period (about 3000 BC) and still exerted a powerful influence long after the conquest of Egypt, first by Persia, then by Macedonia, and finally by Rome.

  5. Egyptian art reflected and reinforced the attitudes of the Egyptians towards their physical and spiritual environment and was intimately related to the hieroglyphic system of writing, along with which it developed at an early period. The predominance of funerary objects, which may foster the misapprehension that the ancient Egyptians were obsessed with preparing for their burial and with the preservation of their bodies, is to some degree an accident of Egypt's geography: the desert - where funerary monuments were erected - offers an ideal climate for the preservation of artifacts. Egyptian art reflected and reinforced the attitudes of the Egyptians towards their physical and spiritual environment and was intimately related to the hieroglyphic system of writing, along with which it developed at an early period. But an intense concern for the afterlife certainly permeated the ancient Egyptian culture and initiated many important works of art.

Exercise 3: Look through the passages in the previous exercise and find a thesis statement in each of them.

Exercise 4: Read through the texts about Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome and single out the thesis statements in them.