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The united kingdom

The official name of country we usually call England and occasionally Great Britain is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom is situated on the group of islands lying just off the mainland of the north­western Europe. The British Isles include Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. The total area of British isles is 325,000 square km. Great Britain consists of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

Great Britain is separated from the European countries by the North sea and the English channel. It is washed on the western coast by the Atlantic ocean and by the Irish Sea.

England occupies the largest Southern part of Great Britain. The capital of England is London. Wales is in the West of Great Britain. The chief town is Cardiff. Scotland is in the north of Great Britain. The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh.

There are 3 natural zones in it: the Highlands, the Lowlands and the Southern Uplands.

Northern Ireland occupies the Northern part of Ireland. The capital is Belfast.

Britain's climate is generally mild. It often rains and fogs, especially in the west and the south-west. The Gulf-Stream, a warm ocean current, moderates the climate of the British Isles and gives cool summers and mild winters to them. Average British temperature does not rise above 32 °С in summer and does not fall below 10 °С in winter.

  1. What is the official name of the country we call Great Britain?

  2. Where do the British Isles lie off?

  3. What does Great Britain consist of?

  4. What is the capital of England?

  5. What can you say about capitals of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland?

  6. What about Britain's climate?

Домашнє завдання

  1. Знати ЛО з теми "Людина і навколишній світ: Великобританія".

  1. Прочитати II частину тексту "The United Kingdom" і дати відповіді на запитання.

Part II

The rivers of Great Britain are abundant and they never freeze. The main rivers are the Thames, the Tyne, the Severn and the Mersey. A considerable area of land is covered with meadows and heathes. The grass remains green all the year round. Thanks to climatic conditions, Britain in truth looks like one great well-ordered park with its old trees, green meadows and hedges. The British Isles are the home of four nations: English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish. The population of the United Kingdom is about 57 million inhabitants. Great Britain is a highly developed industrial, modern power. It is rich in such mineral resources as: coal, iron, marble, lead, tin, copper etc.

There are so called "old" branches of industry which appeared in the period of industrial revolution and "modern" branches that appeared only after the Second World War.

Coal-mining and iron and steel are said to be a traditional "old" branches of industry. They are developed in Wales, Scotland (Manchester, Sheffild).

Among the modern branches are electroengineering, electronics, chemical industry, which can be found in London, Leeds, Manchester, Liverpool, Sheffild etc. Textile industry is one of the leading industries, the source of wealth of Britain in the past.

Great Britain is a parliamentary monarchy. The Queen is at the head of the state. But the country is ruled by the Parliament. It is said that the Queen reigns but does not rule. The British parliament consists of two Houses: The House of Lords and the House of Commons. The House of Commons is the real governing body in the country. The Prime Minister is at the head of the Government.

  1. What can you say about the population of Great Britain?

  2. Are there many rivers in Great Britain?

  3. Is Great Britain a highly developed power?

  4. What are the main branches of industry in Great Britain?

  5. What do you know about the political system of Great Britain?