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ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

AAMI

Association for the Advancement of

ALS

Advanced life support; Amyotropic

 

Medical Instrumentation

 

lateral sclerosis

AAPM

American Association of Physicists in

ALT

Alanine aminotransferase

 

Medicine

ALU

Arithmetic and logic unit

ABC

Automatic brightness control

AM

Amplitude modulation

ABET

Accreditation board for engineering

AMA

American Medical Association

 

training

amu

Atomic mass units

ABG

Arterial blood gases

ANOVA

Analysis of variance

ABLB

Alternative binaural loudness balance

ANSI

American National Standards Institute

ABS

Acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene

AP

Action potential; Alternative pathway;

ac

Alternating current

 

Anteroposterior

AC

Abdominal circumference; Affinity

APD

Anterioposterior diameter

 

chromatography

APL

Adjustable pressure limiting valve;

ACA

Automated clinical analyzer

 

Applied Physics Laboratory

ACES

Augmentative communication evaluation

APR

Anatomically programmed radiography

 

system

AR

Amplitude reduction; Aortic

ACL

Anterior chamber lens

 

regurgitation; Autoregressive

ACLS

Advanced cardiac life support

Ara-C

Arabinosylcytosine

ACOG

American College of Obstetrics and

ARD

Absorption rate density

 

Gynecology

ARDS

Adult respiratory distress syndrome

ACR

American College of Radiology

ARGUS

Arrhythmia guard system

ACS

American Cancer Society; American

ARMA

Autoregressive-moving-average model

 

College of Surgeons

ARMAX

Autoregressive-moving-average model

A/D

Analog-to-digital

 

with external inputs

ADC

Agar diffusion chambers; Analog-to-

AS

Aortic stenosis

 

digital converter

ASA

American Standards Association

ADCC

Antibody-dependent cellular

ASCII

American standard code for information

 

cytotoxicity

 

interchange

ADCL

Accredited Dosimetry Calibration

ASD

Antisiphon device

 

Laboratories

ASHE

American Society for Hospital Engineering

ADP

Adenosine diphosphate

ASTM

American Society for Testing and

A-D-T

Admission, discharge, and transfer

 

Materials

AE

Anion exchange; Auxiliary electrode

AT

Adenosine-thiamide; Anaerobic threshold;

AEA

Articulation error analysis

 

Antithrombin

AEB

Activation energy barrier

ATA

Atmosphere absolute

AEC

Automatic exposure control

ATLS

Advanced trauma life support

AED

Automatic external defibrillator

ATN

Acute tubular necrosis

AEMB

Alliance for Engineering in Medicine

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

 

and Biology

ATPD

Ambient temperature pressure dry

AES

Auger electron spectroscopy

ATPS

Ambient temperature pressure

AESC

American Engineering Standards

 

saturated

 

Committee

ATR

Attenuated total reflection

AET

Automatic exposure termination

AUC

Area under curve

AFO

Ankle-foot orthosis

AUMC

Area under moment curve

AGC

Automatic gain control

AV

Atrioventricular

AHA

American Heart Association

AZT

Azido thymidine

AI

Arterial insufficiency

BA

Biliary atresia

AICD

Automatic implantable cardiac

BAEP

Brainstem auditory evoked potential

 

defibrillator

BAPN

Beta-amino-proprionitryl

AID

Agency for International Development

BAS

Boston anesthesis system

AIDS

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

BASO

Basophil

AL

Anterior leaflet

BB

Buffer base

ALG

Antilymphocyte globulin

BBT

Basal body temperature

xxi

xxii

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

 

 

BCC

 

Body-centered cubic

CCTV

Closed circuit television system

BCD

 

Binary-coded decimal

CCU

Coronary care unit; Critical care unit

BCG

 

Ballistocardiogram

CD

Current density

BCLS

 

Basic cardiac life support

CDR

Complimentary determining region

BCRU

 

British Commitee on Radiation Units

CDRH

Center for Devices and Radiological

 

 

and Measurements

 

Health

BDI

 

Beck depression inventory

CEA

Carcinoembryonic antigen

BE

 

Base excess; Binding energy

CF

Conversion factor; Cystic fibrosis

BET

 

Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller methods

CFC

Continuous flow cytometer

BH

 

His bundle

CFR

Code of Federal Regulations

BI

 

Biological indicators

CFU

Colony forming units

BIH

 

Beth Israel Hospital

CGA

Compressed Gas Association

BIPM

 

International Bureau of Weights and

CGPM

General Conference on Weights and

 

 

Measurements

 

Measures

BJT

 

Bipolar junction transistor

CHO

Carbohydrate

BMDP

 

Biomedical Programs

CHO

Chinese hamster ovary

BME

 

Biomedical engineering

CI

Combination index

BMET

 

Biomedical equipment technician

CICU

Cardiac intensive care unit

BMO

 

Biomechanically optimized

CIF

Contrast improvement factor

BMR

 

Basal metabolic rate

CIN

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

BOL

 

Beginning of life

CK

Creatine kinase

BP

 

Bereitschafts potential; Break point

CLAV

Clavicle

BR

 

Polybutadiene

CLSA

Computerized language sample analysis

BRM

 

Biological response modifier

CM

Cardiomyopathy; Code modulation

BRS

 

Bibliographic retrieval services

CMAD

Computer managed articulation diagnosis

BSS

 

Balanced salt solution

CMI

Computer-managed instruction

BTG

 

Beta thromboglobulin

CMRR

Common mode rejection ratio

BTPS

 

Body temperature pressure saturated

CMV

Conventional mechanical ventilation;

BUN

 

Blood urea nitrogen

 

Cytomegalovirus

BW

 

Body weight

CNS

Central nervous system

CA

 

Conductive adhesives

CNV

Contingent negative variation

CABG

 

Coronary artery by-pass grafting

CO

Carbon monoxide; Cardiac output

CAD/CAM

Computer-aided design/computer-aided

COBAS

Comprehensive Bio-Analysis System

 

 

manufacturing

COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

CAD/D

 

Computer-aided drafting and design

COR

Center of rotation

CADD

 

Central axis depth dose

CP

Cerebral palsy; Closing pressure; Creatine

CAI

 

Computer assisted instruction;

 

phosphate

 

 

Computer-aided instruction

CPB

Cardiopulmonary bypass

CAM

 

Computer-assisted management

CPET

Cardiac pacemaker electrode tips

cAMP

 

Cyclic AMP

CPM

Computerized probe measurements

CAPD

 

Continuous ambulatory peritoneal

CPP

Cerebral perfusion pressure;

 

 

dialysis

 

Cryoprecipitated plasma

CAPP

 

Child amputee prosthetic project

CPR

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CAT

 

Computerized axial tomography

cps

Cycles per second

CATS

 

Computer-assisted teaching system;

CPU

Central Processing unit

 

 

Computerized aphasia treatment system

CR

Center of resistance; Conditioned response;

CAVH

 

Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration

 

Conductive rubber; Creatinine

CB

 

Conjugated bilirubin; Coulomb barrier

CRBB

Complete right bundle branch block

CBC

 

Complete blood count

CRD

Completely randomized design

CBF

 

Cerebral blood flow

CRL

Crown rump length

CBM

 

Computer-based management

CRT

Cathode ray tube

CBV

 

Cerebral blood volume

CS

Conditioned stimulus; Contrast scale;

CC

 

Closing capacity

 

Crown seat

CCC

 

Computer Curriculum Company

CSA

Compressed spectral array

CCD

 

Charge-coupled device

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

CCE

 

Capacitance contact electrode

CSI

Chemical shift imaging

CCF

 

Cross-correlation function

CSM

Chemically sensitive membrane

CCL

 

Cardiac catheterization laboratory

CT

Computed tomography; Computerized

CCM

 

Critical care medical services

 

tomography

CCPD

 

Continuous cycling peritoneal

CTI

Cumulative toxicity response index

 

 

dialysis

CV

Closing volume

 

 

 

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

xxiii

C.V.

Coefficient of variation

EBS

Early burn scar

 

CVA

Cerebral vascular accident

EBV

Epstein–Barr Virus

 

CVP

Central venous pressure

EC

Ethyl cellulose

 

CVR

Cardiovascular resistance

ECC

Emergency cardiac care; Extracorporeal

CW

Continuous wave

 

circulation

 

CWE

Coated wire electrodes

ECCE

Extracapsular cataract extinction

 

CWRU

Case Western Reserve University

ECD

Electron capture detector

 

DAC

Digital-to-analog converter

ECG

Electrocardiogram

 

DAS

Data acquisition system

ECM

Electrochemical machining

 

dB

Decibel

ECMO

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

DB

Direct body

ECOD

Extracranial cerebrovascular occlusive

DBMS

Data base management system

 

disease

 

DBS

Deep brain stimulation

ECRI

Emergency Care Research Institute

 

dc

Direct current

ECS

Exner’s Comprehensive System

 

DCCT

Diabetes control and complications trial

ECT

Electroconvulsive shock therapy;

 

DCP

Distal cavity pressure

 

Electroconvulsive therapy; Emission

DCS

Dorsal column stimulation

 

computed tomography

 

DDC

Deck decompression chamber

EDD

Estimated date of delivery

 

DDS

Deep diving system

EDP

Aortic end diastolic pressure

 

DE

Dispersive electrode

EDTA

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

 

DEN

Device experience network

EDX

Energy dispersive X-ray analysis

 

DERS

Drug exception ordering system

EEG

Electroencephalogram

 

DES

Diffuse esophageal spasm

EEI

Electrode electrolyte interface

 

d.f.

Distribution function

EELV

End-expiratory lung volume

 

DHCP

Distributed Hospital Computer Program

EER

Electrically evoked response

 

DHE

Dihematoporphyrin ether

EF

Ejection fraction

 

DHEW

Department of Health Education and

EF

Electric field; Evoked magnetic fields

 

 

Welfare

EFA

Estimated fetal age

 

DHHS

Department of Health and Human Services

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

 

DHT

Duration of hypothermia

EGG

Electrogastrogram

 

DI

Deionized water

EIA

Enzyme immunoassay

 

DIC

Displacement current

EIU

Electrode impedance unbalance

 

DIS

Diagnostic interview schedule

ELF

Extra low frequency

 

DL

Double layer

ELGON

Electrical goniometer

 

DLI

Difference lumen for intensity

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

 

DM

Delta modulation

ELS

Energy loss spectroscopy

 

DME

Dropping mercury electrode

ELV

Equivalent lung volume

 

DN

Donation number

EM

Electromagnetic

 

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

EMBS

Engineering in Medicine and Biology

 

DOF

Degree of freedom

 

Society

 

DOS

Drug ordering system

emf

Electromotive force

 

DOT-NHTSA

Department of Transportation Highway

EMG

Electromyogram

 

 

Traffic Safety Administration

EMGE

Integrated electromyogram

 

DPB

Differential pencil beam

EMI

Electromagnetic interference

 

DPG

Diphosphoglycerate

EMS

Emergency medical services

 

DQE

Detection quantum efficiency

EMT

Emergency medical technician

 

DRESS

Depth-resolved surface coil spectroscopy

ENT

Ear, nose, and throat

 

DRG

Diagnosis-related group

EO

Elbow orthosis

 

DSA

Digital subtraction angiography

EOG

Electrooculography

 

DSAR

Differential scatter-air ratio

EOL

End of life

 

DSB

Double strand breaks

EOS

Eosinophil

 

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

EP

Elastoplastic; Evoked potentiate

 

D-T

Deuterium-on-tritium

EPA

Environmental protection agency

 

DTA

Differential thermal analysis

ER

Evoked response

 

d.u.

Density unit

ERCP

Endoscopic retrograde

 

DUR

Duration

 

cholangiopancreatography

 

DVT

Deep venous thrombosis

ERG

Electron radiography;

 

EA

Esophageal accelerogram

 

Electroretinogram

 

EB

Electron beam

ERMF

Event-related magnetic field

 

EBCDIC

Extended binary code decimal interchange

ERP

Event-related potential

 

 

code

ERV

Expiratory reserve volume

 

xxiv

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

 

ESCA

 

Electron spectroscopy for chemical

GC

 

 

analysis

GDT

ESI

 

Electrode skin impedance

GFR

ESRD

 

End-stage renal disease

GHb

esu

 

Electrostatic unit

GI

ESU

 

Electrosurgical unit

GLC

ESWL

 

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

GMV

ETO, Eto

Ethylene oxide

GNP

ETT

 

Exercise tolerance testing

GPC

EVA

 

Ethylene vinyl acetate

GPH

EVR

 

Endocardial viability ratio

GPH-EW

EW

 

Extended wear

GPO

FAD

 

Flavin adenine dinucleotide

GSC

FARA

 

Flexible automation random analysis

GSR

FBD

 

Fetal biparietal diameter

GSWD

FBS

 

Fetal bovine serum

HA

fcc

 

Face centered cubic

HAM

FCC

 

Federal Communications Commission

Hb

Fct

 

Fluorocrit

HBE

FDA

 

Food and Drug Administration

HBO

FDCA

 

Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act

HC

FE

 

Finite element

HCA

FECG

 

Fetal electrocardiogram

HCFA

FEF

 

Forced expiratory flow

HCL

FEL

 

Free electron lasers

hcp

FEM

 

Finite element method

HCP

FEP

 

Fluorinated ethylene propylene

HDPE

FES

 

Functional electrical stimulation

HECS

FET

 

Field-effect transistor

HEMS

FEV

 

Forced expiratory volume

 

FFD

 

Focal spot to film distance

HEPA

FFT

 

Fast Fourier transform

HES

FGF

 

Fresh gas flow

HETP

FHR

 

Fetal heart rate

HF

FIC

 

Forced inspiratory capacity

HFCWO

FID

 

Flame ionization detector; Free-induction

HFER

 

 

decay

HFJV

FIFO

 

First-in-first-out

HFO

FITC

 

Fluorescent indicator tagged polymer

HFOV

FL

 

Femur length

HFPPV

FM

 

Frequency modulation

 

FNS

 

Functional neuromuscular stimulation

HFV

FO

 

Foramen ovale

HHS

FO-CRT

 

Fiber optics cathode ray tube

 

FP

 

Fluorescence polarization

HIBC

FPA

 

Fibrinopeptide A

HIMA

FR

 

Federal Register

 

FRC

 

Federal Radiation Council; Functional

HIP

 

 

residual capacity

HIS

FSD

 

Focus-to-surface distance

HK

FTD

 

Focal spot to tissue-plane distance

HL

FTIR

 

Fourier transform infrared

HMBA

FTMS

 

Fourier transform mass spectrometer

HMO

FU

 

Fluorouracil

HMWPE

FUDR

 

Floxuridine

HOL

FVC

 

Forced vital capacity

HP

FWHM

 

Full width at half maximum

HpD

FWTM

 

Full width at tenth maximum

HPLC

GABA

 

Gamma amino buteric acid

HPNS

GAG

 

Glycosaminoglycan

HPS

GBE

 

Gas-bearing electrodynamometer

HPX

Gas chromatography; Guanine-cytosine Gas discharge tube

Glomerular filtration rate Glycosylated hemoglobin Gastrointestinal Gas–liquid chromatography General minimum variance Gross national product

Giant papillary conjunctivitis Gas-permeable hard

Gas-permeable hard lens extended wear Government Printing Office

Gas-solid chromatography Galvanic skin response Generalized spike-wave discharge Hydroxyapatite

Helical axis of motion Hemoglobin

His bundle electrogram Hyperbaric oxygenation Head circumference

Hypothermic circulatory arrest Health care financing administration Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory Hexagonal close-packed

Half cell potential

High density polyethylene

Hospital Equipment Control System Hospital Engineering Management

System

High efficiency particulate air filter Hydroxyethylstarch

Height equivalent to a theoretical plate High-frequency; Heating factor High-frequency chest wall oscillation High-frequency electromagnetic radiation High-frequency jet ventilation High-frequency oscillator High-frequency oscillatory ventilation High-frequency positive pressure

ventilation High-frequency ventilation

Department of Health and Human Services

Health industry bar code Health Industry Manufacturers

Association

Hydrostatic indifference point Hospital information system Hexokinase

Hearing level Hexamethylene bisacetamide

Health maintenance organization High-molecular-weight polyethylene Higher-order languages

Heating factor; His-Purkinje Hematoporphyrin derivative High-performance liquid chromatography High-pressure neurological syndrome His-Purkinje system

High peroxidase activity

 

 

 

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

xxv

HR

Heart rate; High-resolution

IMIA

International Medical Informatics

 

HRNB

Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological

 

Association

 

 

Battery

IMS

Information management system

 

H/S

Hard/soft

IMV

Intermittent mandatory ventilation

 

HSA

Human serum albumin

INF

Interferon

 

HSG

Hysterosalpingogram

IOL

Intraocular lens

 

HTCA

Human tumor cloning assay

IPC

Ion-pair chromatography

 

HTLV

Human T cell lymphotrophic virus

IPD

Intermittent peritoneal dialysis

 

HU

Heat unit; Houndsfield units; Hydroxyurea

IPG

Impedance plethysmography

 

HVL

Half value layer

IPI

Interpulse interval

 

HVR

Hypoxic ventilatory response

IPPB

Intermittent positive pressure breathing

HVT

Half-value thickness

IPTS

International practical temperature scale

IA

Image intensifier assembly; Inominate

IR

Polyisoprene rubber

 

 

artery

IRB

Institutional Review Board

 

IABP

Intraaortic balloon pumping

IRBBB

Incomplete right bundle branch block

 

IAEA

International Atomic Energy Agency

IRPA

International Radiation Protection

 

IAIMS

Integrated Academic Information

 

Association

 

 

Management System

IRRAS

Infrared reflection-absorption

 

IASP

International Association for the Study

 

spectroscopy

 

 

of Pain

IRRS

Infrared reflection spectroscopy

 

IC

Inspiratory capacity; Integrated circuit

IRS

Internal reflection spectroscopy

 

ICCE

Intracapsular cataract extraction

IRV

Inspiratory reserve capacity

 

ICD

Intracervical device

IS

Image size; Ion-selective

 

ICDA

International classification of diagnoses

ISC

Infant skin servo control

 

ICL

Ms-clip lens

ISDA

Instantaneous screw displacement axis

ICP

Inductively coupled plasma;

ISE

Ion-selective electrode

 

 

Intracranial pressure

ISFET

Ion-sensitive field effect transistor

 

ICPA

Intracranial pressure amplitude

ISIT

Intensified silicon-intensified target tube

ICRP

International Commission on

ISO

International Organization for

 

 

Radiological Protection

 

Standardization

 

ICRU

International Commission on Radiological

ISS

Ion scattering spectroscopy

 

 

Units and Measurements

IT

Intrathecal

 

ICU

Intensive care unit

ITEP

Institute of Theoretical and Experimental

ID

Inside diameter

 

Physics

 

IDDM

Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

ITEPI

Instantaneous trailing edge pulse

 

IDE

Investigational device exemption

 

impedance

 

IDI

Index of inspired gas distribution

ITLC

Instant thin-layer chromatography

 

I:E

Inspiratory: expiratory

IUD

Intrauterine device

 

IEC

International Electrotechnical

IV

Intravenous

 

 

Commission; Ion-exchange

IVC

Inferior vena cava

 

 

chromatography

IVP

Intraventricular pressure

 

IEEE

Institute of Electrical and Electronics

JCAH

Joint Commission on the Accreditation

 

Engineers

 

of Hospitals

 

IEP

Individual educational program

JND

Just noticeable difference

 

BETS

Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy

JRP

Joint replacement prosthesis

 

IF

Immunofluorescent

KB

Kent bundle

 

IFIP

International Federation for Information

Kerma

Kinetic energy released in unit mass

 

 

Processing

KO

Knee orthosis

 

IFMBE

International Federation for Medical and

KPM

Kilopond meter

 

 

Biological Engineering

KRPB

Krebs-Ringer physiological buffer

 

IGFET

Insulated-gate field-effect transistor

LA

Left arm; Left atrium

 

IgG

Immunoglobulin G

LAD

Left anterior descending; Left axis

 

IgM

Immunoglobulin M

 

deviation

 

IHP

Inner Helmholtz plane

LAE

Left atrial enlargement

 

IHSS

Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis

LAK

Lymphokine activated killer

 

II

Image intensifier

LAL

Limulus amoebocyte lysate

 

IIIES

Image intensifier input-exposure

LAN

Local area network

 

 

sensitivity

LAP

Left atrial pressure

 

IM

Intramuscular

LAT

Left anterior temporalis

 

IMFET

Immunologically sensitive field-effect

LBBB

Left bundle branch block

 

 

transistor

LC

Left carotid; Liquid chromatography

 

xxvi

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

 

 

LCC

Left coronary cusp

MDP

Mean diastolic aortic pressure

LCD

Liquid crystal display

MDR

Medical device reporting

LDA

Laser Doppler anemometry

MDS

Multidimensional scaling

LDF

Laser Doppler flowmetry

ME

Myoelectric

LDH

Lactate dehydrogenase

MED

Minimum erythema dose

LDPE

Low density polyethylene

MEDPAR

Medicare provider analysis and review

LEBS

Low-energy brief stimulus

MEFV

Maximal expiratory flow volume

LED

Light-emitting diode

MEG

Magnetoencephalography

LEED

Low energy electron diffraction

MeSH

Medline subject heading

LES

Lower esophageal sphincter

METS

Metabolic equivalents

LESP

Lower esophageal sphincter pressure

MF

Melamine-formaldehyde

LET

Linear energy transfer

MFP

Magnetic field potential

LF

Low frequency

MGH

Massachusetts General Hospital

LH

Luteinizing hormone

MHV

Magnetic heart vector

LHT

Local hyperthermia

MI

Myocardial infarction

LL

Left leg

MIC

Minimum inhibitory concentration

LLDPE

Linear low density polyethylene

MIFR

Maximum inspiratory flow rate

LLPC

Liquid-liquid partition chromatography

MINET

Medical Information Network

LLW

Low-level waste

MIR

Mercury-in-rubber

LM

Left masseter

MIS

Medical information system;

LNNB

Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological

 

Metal-insulator-semiconductor

 

Battery

MIT

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

LOS

Length of stay

MIT/BIH

Massachusetts Institute of Technology/

LP

Late potential; Lumboperitoneal

 

Beth Israel Hospital

LPA

Left pulmonary artery

MMA

Manual metal arc welding

LPC

Linear predictive coding

MMA

Methyl methacrylate

LPT

Left posterior temporalis

MMECT

Multiple-monitored ECT

LPV

Left pulmonary veins

MMFR

Maximum midexpiratory flow rate

LRP

Late receptor potential

mm Hg

Millimeters of mercury

LS

Left subclavian

MMPI

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality

LSC

Liquid-solid adsorption chromatography

 

Inventory

LSI

Large scale integrated

MMSE

Minimum mean square error

LSV

Low-amplitude shear-wave

MO

Membrane oxygenation

 

viscoelastometry

MONO

Monocyte

LTI

Low temperature isotropic

MOSFET

Metal oxide silicon field-effect

LUC

Large unstained cells

 

transistor

LV

Left ventricle

MP

Mercaptopurine; Metacarpal-phalangeal

LVAD

Left ventricular assist device

MPD

Maximal permissible dose

LVDT

Linear variable differential transformer

MR

Magnetic resonance

LVEP

Left ventricular ejection period

MRG

Magnetoretinogram

LVET

Left ventricular ejection time

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

LVH

Left ventricular hypertrophy

MRS

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy

LYMPH

Lymphocyte

MRT

Mean residence time

MAA

Macroaggregated albumin

MS

Mild steel; Multiple sclerosis

MAC

Minimal auditory capabilities

MSR

Magnetically shielded room

MAN

Manubrium

MTBF

Mean time between failure

MAP

Mean airway pressure; Mean arterial

MTF

Modulation transfer function

 

pressure

MTTR

Mean time to repair

MAST

Military assistance to safety and traffic

MTX

Methotroxate

MBA

Monoclonal antibody

MUA

Motor unit activity

MBV

Maximum breathing ventilation

MUAP

Motor unit action potential

MBX

Monitoring branch exchange

MUAPT

Motor unit action potential train

MCA

Methyl cryanoacrylate

MUMPI

Missouri University Multi-Plane

MCG

Magnetocardiogram

 

Imager

MCI

Motion Control Incorporated

MUMPS

Massachusetts General Hospital utility

MCMI

Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory

 

multiuser programming system

MCT

Microcatheter transducer

MV

Mitral valve

MCV

Mean corpuscular volume

MVO2

Maximal oxygen uptake

MDC

Medical diagnostic categories

MVTR

Moisture vapor transmission rate

MDI

Diphenylmethane diisocyanate;

MVV

Maximum voluntary ventilation

 

Medical Database Informatics

MW

Molecular weight

 

 

 

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

xxvii

NAA

Neutron activation analysis

OPG

Ocular pneumoplethysmography

 

NAD

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

OR

Operating room

 

NADH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide,

OS

Object of known size; Operating system

 

reduced form

OTC

Over the counter

 

NADP

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

OV

Offset voltage

 

 

phosphate

PA

Posterioanterior; Pulmonary artery;

 

NAF

Neutrophil activating factor

 

Pulse amplitude

 

NARM

Naturally occurring and accelerator-

PACS

Picture archiving and communications

 

produced radioactive materials

 

systems

 

NBB

Normal buffer base

PAD

Primary afferent depolarization

 

NBD

Neuromuscular blocking drugs

PAM

Pulse amplitude modulation

 

N-BPC

Normal bonded phase chromatography

PAN

Polyacrylonitrile

 

NBS

National Bureau of Standards

PAP

Pulmonary artery pressure

 

NCC

Noncoronary cusp

PAR

Photoactivation ratio

 

NCCLS

National Committee for Clinical

PARFR

Program for Applied Research on

 

 

Laboratory Standards; National

 

Fertility Regulation

 

 

Committee on Clinical Laboratory

PARR

Poetanesthesia recovery room

 

 

Standards

PAS

Photoacoustic spectroscopy

 

NCRP

National Council on Radiation Protection

PASG

Pneumatic antishock garment

 

NCT

Neutron capture theory

PBI

Penile brachial index

 

NEEP

Negative end-expiratory pressure

PBL

Positive beam limitation

 

NEMA

National Electrical Manufacturers

PBT

Polybutylene terephthalate

 

 

Association

PC

Paper chromatography; Personal

 

NEMR

Nonionizing electromagnetic radiation

 

computer; Polycarbonate

 

NEQ

Noise equivalent quanta

PCA

Patient controlled analgesia; Principal

NET

Norethisterone

 

components factor analysis

 

NEUT

Neutrophil

PCG

Phonocardiogram

 

NFPA

National Fire Protection Association

PCI

Physiological cost index

 

NH

Neonatal hepatitis

PCL

Polycaprolactone; Posterior chamber

 

NHE

Normal hydrogen electrode

 

lens

 

NHLBI

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

PCR

Percent regurgitation

 

NIR

Nonionizing radiation

PCRC

Perinatal Clinical Research Center

 

NIRS

National Institute for Radiologic Science

PCS

Patient care system

 

NK

Natural killer

PCT

Porphyria cutanea tarda

 

NMJ

Neuromuscular junction

PCWP

Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure

 

NMOS

N-type metal oxide silicon

PD

Peritoneal dialysis; Poly-p-dioxanone;

NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance

 

Potential difference; Proportional and

NMS

Neuromuscular stimulation

 

derivative

 

NPH

Normal pressure hydrocephalus

PDD

Percent depth dose; Perinatal Data

 

NPL

National Physical Laboratory

 

Directory

 

NR

Natural rubber

PDE

Pregelled disposable electrodes

 

NRC

Nuclear Regulatory Commission

p.d.f.

Probability density function

 

NRZ

Non-return-to-zero

PDL

Periodontal ligament

 

NTC

Negative temperature coefficient

PDM

Pulse duration modulation

 

NTIS

National Technical Information Service

PDMSX

Polydimethyl siloxane

 

NVT

Neutrons versus time

PDS

Polydioxanone

 

NYHA

New York Heart Association

PE

Polyethylene

 

ob/gyn

Obstetrics and gynecology

PEEP

Positive end-expiratory pressure

 

OCR

Off-center ratio; Optical character

PEFR

Peak expiratory now rate

 

 

recognition

PEN

Parenteral and enteral nutrition

 

OCV

Open circuit voltage

PEP

Preejection period

 

OD

Optical density; Outside diameter

PEPPER

Programs examine phonetic find

 

ODC

Oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve

 

phonological evaluation records

 

ODT

Oxygen delivery truck

PET

Polyethylene terephthalate;

 

ODU

Optical density unit

 

Positron-emission tomography

 

OER

Oxygen enhancement ratio

PEU

Polyetherurethane

 

OFD

Object to film distance; Occiputo-frontal

PF

Platelet factor

 

 

diameter

PFA

Phosphonoformic add

 

OHL

Outer Helmholtz layer

PFC

Petrofluorochemical

 

OHP

Outer Helmholtz plane

PFT

Pulmonary function testing

 

OIH

Orthoiodohippurate

PG

Polyglycolide; Propylene glycol

 

xxviii

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

 

 

PGA

Polyglycolic add

PURA

Prolonged ultraviolet-A radiation

PHA

Phytohemagglutinin; Pulse-height

PUVA

Psoralens and longwave ultraviolet light

 

analyzer

 

photochemotherapy

PHEMA

Poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate

P/V

Pressure/volume

PI

Propidium iodide

PVC

Polyvinyl chloride; Premature ventricular

PID

Pelvic inflammatory disease;

 

contraction

 

Proportional/integral/derivative

PVI

Pressure–volume index

PIP

Peak inspiratory pressure

PW

Pulse wave; Pulse width

PL

Posterior leaflet

PWM

Pulse width modulation

PLA

Polylactic acid

PXE

Pseudo-xanthoma elasticum

PLATO

Program Logic for Automated Teaching

QA

Quality assurance

 

Operations

QC

Quality control

PLD

Potentially lethal damage

R-BPC

Reverse bonded phase chromatography

PLED

Periodic latoralized epileptiform discharge

R/S

Radiopaque-spherical

PLT

Platelet

RA

Respiratory amplitude; Right arm

PM

Papillary muscles; Preventive

RAD

Right axis deviation

 

maintenance

RAE

Right atrial enlargement

PMA

Polymethyl acrylate

RAM

Random access memory

p.m.f.

Probability mass function

RAP

Right atrial pressure

PMMA

Polymethyl methacrylate

RAT

Right anterior temporalis

PMOS

P-type metal oxide silicon

RB

Right bundle

PMP

Patient management problem;

RBBB

Right bundle branch block

 

Poly(4-methylpentane)

RBC

Red blood cell

PMT

Photomultiplier tube

RBE

Relative biologic effectiveness

PO

Per os

RBF

Rose bengal fecal excretion

Po2

Partial pressure of oxygen

RBI

Resting baseline impedance

POBT

Polyoxybutylene terephthalate

RCBD

Randomized complete block diagram

POM

Polyoxymethylene

rCBF

Regional cerebral blood flow

POMC

Patient order management and

RCC

Right coronary cusp

 

communication system

RCE

Resistive contact electrode

POPRAS

Problem Oriented Perinatal Risk

R&D

Research and development

 

Assessment System

r.e.

Random experiment

PP

Perfusion pressure; Polyproplyene;

RE

Reference electrode

 

Postprandial (after meals)

REM

Rapid eye movement; Return electrode

PPA

Phonemic process analysis

 

monitor

PPF

Plasma protein fraction

REMATE

Remote access and telecommunication

PPM

Pulse position modulation

 

system

PPSFH

Polymerized phyridoxalated stroma-free

RES

Reticuloendothelial system

 

hemoglobin

RESNA

Rehabilitation Engineering Society of

PR

Pattern recognition; Pulse rate

 

North America

PRBS

Pseudo-random binary signals

RF

Radio frequency; Radiographic-

PRP

Pulse repetition frequency

 

nuoroscopic

PRO

Professional review organization

RFI

Radio-frequency interference

PROM

Programmable read only memory

RFP

Request for proposal

PS

Polystyrene

RFQ

Request for quotation

PSA

Pressure-sensitive adhesive

RH

Relative humidity

PSF

Point spread function

RHE

Reversible hydrogen electrode

PSI

Primary skin irritation

RIA

Radioimmunoassay

PSP

Postsynaptic potential

RM

Repetition maximum; Right masseter

PSR

Proton spin resonance

RMR

Resting metabolic rate

PSS

Progressive systemic sclerosis

RMS

Root mean square

PT

Plasma thromboplastin

RN

Radionuclide

PTB

Patellar tendon bearing orthosis

RNCA

Radionuclide cineagiogram

PTC

Plasma thromboplastin component;

ROI

Regions of interest

 

Positive temperature coefficient;

ROM

Range of motion; Read only memory

 

Pressurized personal transfer capsule

RP

Retinitis pigmentosa

PTCA

Percutaneous transluminal coronary

RPA

Right pulmonary artery

 

angioplasty

RPP

Rate pressure product

PTFE

Polytetrafluoroethylene

RPT

Rapid pull-through technique

PTT

Partial thromboplastin time

RPV

Right pulmonary veins

PUL

Percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy

RQ

Respiratory quotient

 

 

 

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

xxix

RR

Recovery room

SEBS

Surgical isolation barrier system

 

RRT

Recovery room time; Right posterior

SID

Source to image reception distance

 

 

temporalis

SIMFU

Scanned intensity modulated focused

 

RT

Reaction time

 

ultrasound

 

RTD

Resistance temperature device

SIMS

Secondary ion mass spectroscopy; System

RTT

Revised token test

 

for isometric muscle strength

 

r.v.

Random variable

SISI

Short increment sensitivity index

 

RV

Residual volume; Right ventricle

SL

Surgical lithotomy

 

RVH

Right ventricular hypertrophy

SLD

Sublethal damage

 

RVOT

Right ventricular outflow tract

SLE

Systemic lupus erythemotodes

 

RZ

Return-to-zero

SMA

Sequential multiple analyzer

 

SA

Sinoatrial; Specific absorption

SMAC

Sequential multiple analyzer with

 

SACH

Solid-ankle-cushion-heel

 

computer

 

SAD

Source-axis distance; Statistical

SMR

Sensorimotor

 

 

Analysis System

S/N

Signal-to-noise

 

SAINT

System analysis of integrated network

S:N/D

Signal-to-noise ratio per unit dose

 

 

of tasks

SNP

Sodium nitroprusside

 

SAL

Sterility assurance level; Surface

SNR

Signal-to-noise ratio

 

 

averaged lead

SOA

Sources of artifact

 

SALT

Systematic analysis of language

SOAP

Subjective, objective, assessment, plan

 

transcripts

SOBP

Spread-out Bragg peak

 

SAMI

Socially acceptable monitoring

SP

Skin potential

 

 

instrument

SPECT

Single photon emission computed

 

SAP

Systemic arterial pressure

 

tomography

 

SAR

Scatter-air ratio; Specific absorption rate

SPL

Sound pressure level

 

SARA

System for anesthetic and respiratory

SPRINT

Single photon ring tomograph

 

 

gas analysis

SPRT

Standard platinum resistance

 

SBE

Subbacterial endocarditis

 

thermometer

 

SBR

Styrene-butadiene rubbers

SPSS

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences

SC

Stratum corneum; Subcommittees

SQUID

Superconducting quantum interference

SCAP

Right scapula

 

device

 

SCE

Saturated calomel electrode; Sister

SQV

Square wave voltammetry

 

 

chromatid exchange

SR

Polysulfide rubbers

 

SCI

Spinal cord injury

SRT

Speech reception threshold

 

SCRAD

Sub-Committee on Radiation Dosimetry

SS

Stainless steel

 

SCS

Spinal cord stimulation

SSB

Single strand breaks

 

SCUBA

Self-contained underwater breathing

SSD

Source-to-skin distance; Source-to-surface

 

apparatus

 

distance

 

SD

Standard deviation

SSE

Stainless steel electrode

 

SDA

Stepwise discriminant analysis

SSEP

Somatosensory evoked potential

 

SDS

Sodium dodecyl sulfate

SSG

Solid state generator

 

S&E

Safety and effectiveness

SSP

Skin stretch potential

 

SE

Standard error

SSS

Sick sinus syndrome

 

SEC

Size exclusion chromatography

STD

Source-tray distance

 

SEM

Scanning electron microscope; Standard

STI

Systolic time intervals

 

 

error of the mean

STP

Standard temperature and pressure

 

SEP

Somatosensory evoked potential

STPD

Standard temperature pressure dry

 

SEXAFS

Surface extended X-ray absorption

SV

Stroke volume

 

 

fine structure

SVC

Superior vena cava

 

SF

Surviving fraction

SW

Standing wave

 

SFD

Source-film distance

TAA

Tumor-associated antigens

 

SFH

Stroma-free hemoglobin

TAC

Time-averaged concentration

 

SFTR

Sagittal frontal transverse rotational

TAD

Transverse abdominal diameter

 

SG

Silica gel

TAG

Technical Advisory Group

 

SGF

Silica gel fraction

TAH

Total artificial heart

 

SGG

Spark gap generator

TAR

Tissue-air ratio

 

SGOT

Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase

TC

Technical Committees

 

SGP

Strain gage plethysmography;

TCA

Tricarboxylic acid cycle

 

 

Stress-generated potential

TCD

Thermal conductivity detector

 

SHE

Standard hydrogen electrode

TCES

Transcutaneous cranial electrical

 

SI

Le Syste`me International d’Unite´s

 

stimulation

 

xxx

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

 

 

TCP

Tricalcium phosphate

UHMWPE

Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene

TDD

Telecommunication devices for the

UL

Underwriters Laboratory

 

deaf

ULF

Ultralow frequency

TDM

Therapeutic drug monitoring

ULTI

Ultralow temperature isotropic

TE

Test electrode; Thermoplastic elastomers

UMN

Upper motor neuron

TEAM

Technology evaluation and acquisition

UO

Urinary output

 

methods

UPTD

Unit pulmonary oxygen toxicity doses

TEM

Transmission electron microscope;

UR

Unconditioned response

 

Transverse electric and magnetic mode;

US

Ultrasound; Unconditioned stimulus

 

Transverse electromagnetic mode

USNC

United States National Committee

TENS

Transcutaneous electrical nerve

USP

United States Pharmacopeia

 

stimulation

UTS

Ultimate tensile strength

TEP

Tracheoesophageal puncture

UV

Ultraviolet; Umbilical vessel

TEPA

Triethylenepho-sphoramide

UVR

Ultraviolet radiation

TF

Transmission factor

V/F

Voltage-to-frequency

TFE

Tetrafluorethylene

VA

Veterans Administration

TI

Totally implantable

VAS

Visual analog scale

TICCIT

Time-shared Interaction Computer-

VBA

Vaginal blood volume in arousal

 

Controlled Information Television

VC

Vital capacity

TLC

Thin-layer chromatography; Total

VCO

Voltage-controlled oscillator

 

lung capacity

VDT

Video display terminal

TLD

Thermoluminescent dosimetry

VECG

Vectorelectrocardiography

TMJ

Temporomandibular joint

VEP

Visually evoked potential

TMR

Tissue maximum ratio; Topical

VF

Ventricular fibrillation

 

magnetic resonance

VOP

Venous occlusion plethysmography

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

VP

Ventriculoperitoneal

TOF

Train-of-four

VPA

Vaginal pressure pulse in arousal

TP

Thermal performance

VPB

Ventricular premature beat

TPC

Temperature pressure correction

VPR

Volume pressure response

TPD

Triphasic dissociation

VSD

Ventricular septal defect

TPG

Transvalvular pressure gradient

VSWR

Voltage standing wave ratio

TPN

Total parenteral nutrition

VT

Ventricular tachycardia

TR

Temperature rise

VTG

Vacuum tube generator

tRNA

Transfer RNA

VTS

Viewscan text system

TSH

Thyroid stimulating hormone

VV

Variable version

TSS

Toxic shock syndrome

WAIS-R

Weschler Adult Intelligence

TTD

Telephone devices for the deaf

 

Scale-Revised

TTI

Tension time index

WAK

Wearable artificial kidney

TTR

Transition temperature range

WAML

Wide-angle mobility light

TTV

Trimming tip version

WBAR

Whole-body autoradiography

TTY

Teletypewriter

WBC

White blood cell

TUR

Transurethral resection

WG

Working Groups

TURP

Transurethral resections of the

WHO

World Health Organization; Wrist hand

 

prostrate

 

orthosis

TV

Television; Tidal volume; Tricuspid valve

WLF

Williams-Landel-Ferry

TVER

Transscleral visual evoked response

WMR

Work metabolic rate

TW

Traveling wave

w/o

Weight percent

TxB2

Thrombozame B2

WORM

Write once, read many

TZ

Transformation zone

WPW

Wolff-Parkinson-White

UES

Upper esophageal sphincter

XPS

X-ray photon spectroscopy

UP

Urea-formaldehyde

XR

Xeroradiograph

UfflS

University Hospital Information System

YAG

Yttrium aluminum garnet

UHMW

Ultra high molecular weight

ZPL

Zero pressure level