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PREFACE

This six-volume work is an alphabetically organized compilation of almost 300 articles that describe critical aspects of medical devices and instrumentation.

It is comprehensive. The articles emphasize the contributions of engineering, physics, and computers to each of the general areas of anesthesiology, biomaterials, burns, cardiology, clinical chemistry, clinical engineering, communicative disorders, computers in medicine, critical care medicine, dermatology, dentistry, ear, nose, and throat, emergency medicine, endocrinology, gastroenterology, genetics, geriatrics, gynecology, hematology, heptology, internal medicine, medical physics, microbiology, nephrology, neurology, nutrition, obstetrics, oncology, ophthalmology, orthopedics, pain, pediatrics, peripheral vascular disease, pharmacology, physical therapy, psychiatry, pulmonary medicine, radiology, rehabilitation, surgery, tissue engineering, transducers, and urology.

The discipline is defined through the synthesis of the core knowledge from all the fields encompassed by the application of engineering, physics, and computers to problems in medicine. The articles focus not only on what is now useful but also on what is likely to be useful in future medical applications.

These volumes answer the question, ‘‘What are the branches of medicine and how does technology assist each of them?’’ rather than ‘‘What are the branches of technology and how could each be used in medicine?’’ To keep this work to a manageable length, the practice of medicine that is unassisted by devices, such as the use of drugs to treat disease, has been excluded.

The articles are accessible to the user; each benefits from brevity of condensation instead of what could easily have been a book-length work. The articles are designed not for peers, but rather for workers from related fields who wish to take a first look at what is important in the subject.

The articles are readable. They do not presume a detailed background in the subject, but are designed for any person with a scientific background and an interest in technology. Rather than attempting to teach the basics of physiology or Ohm’s law, the articles build on such basic concepts to show how the worlds of life science and physical science meld to produce improved systems. While the ideal reader might be a person with a Master’s degree in biomedical engineering or medical physics or an M.D. with a physical science undergraduate degree, much of the material will be of value to others with an interest in this growing field. High school students and hospital patients can skip over more technical areas and still gain much from the descriptive presentations.

The Encyclopedia of Medical Devices and Instrumentation is excellent for browsing and searching for those new divergent associations that may advance work in a peripheral field. While it can be used as a reference for facts, the articles are long enough that they can serve as an educational instrument and provide genuine understanding of a subject.

One can use this work just as one would use a dictionary, since the articles are arranged alphabetically by topic. Cross references assist the reader looking for subjects listed under slightly different names. The index at the end leads the reader to all articles containing pertinent information on any subject. Listed on pages xxi to xxx are all the abbreviations and acronyms used in the Encyclopedia. Because of the increasing use of SI units in all branches of science, these units are provided throughout the Encyclopedia articles as well as on pages xxxi to xxxv in the section on conversion factors and unit symbols.

I owe a great debt to the many people who have contributed to the creation of this work. At John Wiley & Sons, Encyclopedia Editor George Telecki provided the idea and guiding influence to launch the project. Sean Pidgeon was Editorial Director of the project. Assistant Editors Roseann Zappia, Sarah Harrington, and Surlan Murrell handled the myriad details of communication between publisher, editor, authors, and reviewers and stimulated authors and reviewers to meet necessary deadlines.

My own background has been in the electrical aspects of biomedical engineering. I was delighted to have the assistance of the editorial board to develop a comprehensive encyclopedia. David J. Beebe suggested cellular topics such as microfluidics. Jerry M. Calkins assisted in defining the chemically related subjects, such as anesthesiology. Michael R. Neuman suggested subjects related to sensors, such as in his own work—neonatology. Joon B. Park has written extensively on biomaterials and suggested related subjects. Edward S. Sternick provided many suggestions from medical physics. The Editorial Board was instrumental both in defining the list of subjects and in suggesting authors.

This second edition brings the field up to date. It is available on the web at http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley. com/emdi, where articles can be searched simultaneously to provide rapid and comprehensive information on all aspects of medical devices and instrumentation.

JOHN G. WEBSTER

University of Wisconsin, Madison

xv

LIST OF ARTICLES

ALLOYS, SHAPE MEMORY AMBULATORY MONITORING ANALYTICAL METHODS, AUTOMATED ANESTHESIA MACHINES ANESTHESIA, COMPUTERS IN ANGER CAMERA

ANORECTAL MANOMETRY ARRHYTHMIA ANALYSIS, AUTOMATED ARTERIES, ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF AUDIOMETRY

BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF MATERIALS BIOELECTRODES

BIOFEEDBACK BIOHEAT TRANSFER

BIOIMPEDANCE IN CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE BIOINFORMATICS

BIOMAGNETISM BIOMATERIALS, ABSORBABLE BIOMATERIALS: AN OVERVIEW BIOMATERIALS: BIOCERAMICS BIOMATERIALS: CARBON

BIOMATERIALS, CORROSION AND WEAR OF BIOMATERIALS FOR DENTISTRY BIOMATERIALS: POLYMERS BIOMATERIALS, SURFACE PROPERTIES OF

BIOMATERIALS, TESTING AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF

BIOMATERIALS: TISSUE ENGINEERING AND SCAFFOLDS

BIOMECHANICS OF EXERCISE FITNESS BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION BIOSURFACE ENGINEERING BIOTELEMETRY

BLADDER DYSFUNCTION, NEUROSTIMULATION OF

BLIND AND VISUALLY IMPAIRED, ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR

BLOOD COLLECTION AND PROCESSING BLOOD GAS MEASUREMENTS

BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

BLOOD PRESSURE, AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF BLOOD RHEOLOGY

BLOOD, ARTIFICIAL

BONE AND TEETH, PROPERTIES OF BONE CEMENT, ACRYLIC

BONE DENSITY MEASUREMENT

BONE UNUNITED FRACTURE AND SPINAL FUSION, ELECTRICAL TREATMENT OF

BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY BRACHYTHERAPY, HIGH DOSAGE RATE BRACHYTHERAPY, INTRAVASCULAR CAPACITIVE MICROSENSORS FOR BIOMEDICAL

APPLICATIONS

CARDIAC OUTPUT, FICK TECHNIQUE FOR CARDIAC OUTPUT, INDICATOR DILUTION

MEASUREMENT OF

CARDIAC OUTPUT, THERMODILUTION MEASUREMENT OF

CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION CARTILAGE AND MENISCUS, PROPERTIES OF CELL COUNTERS, BLOOD

CELLULAR IMAGING

CHROMATOGRAPHY CO2 ELECTRODES

COBALT 60 UNITS FOR RADIOTHERAPY COCHLEAR PROSTHESES

CODES AND REGULATIONS: MEDICAL DEVICES CODES AND REGULATIONS: RADIATION COLORIMETRY

COLPOSCOPY COMMUNICATION DEVICES

COMMUNICATIVE DISORDERS, COMPUTER APPLICATIONS FOR

COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY SCREENING COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY SIMULATORS COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY, SINGLE PHOTON

EMISSION

COMPUTER-ASSISTED DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS COMPUTERS IN THE BIOMEDICAL LABORATORY CONTACT LENSES

CONTINUOUS POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES

CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY AND GUIDEWIRE DIAGNOSTICS

CRYOSURGERY

CUTANEOUS BLOOD FLOW, DOPPLER MEASUREMENT OF

CYSTIC FIBROSIS SWEAT TEST CYTOLOGY, AUTOMATED DEFIBRILLATORS

DIFFERENTIAL COUNTS, AUTOMATED DIGITAL ANGIOGRAPHY

DNA SEQUENCE

DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

DRUG INFUSION SYSTEMS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY AND DOPPLER

ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY ELECTROANALGESIA, SYSTEMIC ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY, COMPUTERS IN ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY ELECTROGASTROGRAM ELECTROMYOGRAPHY ELECTRONEUROGRAPHY ELECTROPHORESIS

xvii

xviii LIST OF ARTICLES

ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY ELECTRORETINOGRAPHY ELECTROSURGICAL UNIT (ESU) ENDOSCOPES

ENGINEERED TISSUE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL EQUIPMENT ACQUISITION

EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE, BIOMEDICAL ESOPHAGEAL MANOMETRY

EVOKED POTENTIALS EXERCISE STRESS TESTING

EYE MOVEMENT, MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES FOR FETAL MONITORING

FIBER OPTICS IN MEDICINE

FLAME ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROMETRY AND ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY

FLOWMETERS

FLUORESCENCE MEASUREMENTS FUNCTIONAL ELECTRICAL STIMULATION GAMMA KNIFE

GAS AND VACUUM SYSTEMS, CENTRALLY PIPED MEDICAL

GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE GLUCOSE SENSORS

HEART VALVE PROSTHESES

HEART VALVE PROSTHESES, IN VITRO FLOW DYNAMICS OF

HEART VALVES, PROSTHETIC HEART, ARTIFICIAL HEART–LUNG MACHINES

HEAT AND COLD, THERAPEUTIC HEMODYNAMICS

HIGH FREQUENCY VENTILATION HIP JOINTS, ARTIFICIAL

HOME HEALTH CARE DEVICES

HUMAN FACTORS IN MEDICAL DEVICES HUMAN SPINE, BIOMECHANICS OF HYDROCEPHALUS, TOOLS FOR DIAGNOSIS

AND TREATMENT OF

HYPERBARIC MEDICINE HYPERBARIC OXYGENATION HYPERTHERMIA, INTERSTITIAL HYPERTHERMIA, SYSTEMIC HYPERTHERMIA, ULTRASONIC

IMAGE INTENSIFIERS AND FLUOROSCOPY IMAGING DEVICES

IMMUNOLOGICALLY SENSITIVE FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS

IMMUNOTHERAPY

IMPEDANCE PLETHYSMOGRAPHY IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY INCUBATORS, INFANT

INTEGRATED CIRCUIT TEMPERATURE SENSOR INTRAAORTIC BALLOON PUMP INTRAUTERINE SURGICAL TECHNIQUES

IONIZING RADIATION, BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ION-SENSITIVE FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS JOINTS, BIOMECHANICS OF

LARYNGEAL PROSTHETIC DEVICES LENSES, INTRAOCULAR

LIGAMENT AND TENDON, PROPERTIES OF

LINEAR VARIABLE DIFFERENTIAL TRANSFORMERS LITHOTRIPSY

LIVER TRANSPLANTATION LUNG SOUNDS

MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING MAMMOGRAPHY

MEDICAL EDUCATION, COMPUTERS IN MEDICAL ENGINEERING SOCIETIES

AND ORGANIZATIONS

MEDICAL GAS ANALYZERS MEDICAL PHYSICS LITERATURE MEDICAL RECORDS, COMPUTERS IN MICROARRAYS

MICROBIAL DETECTION SYSTEMS MICROBIOREACTORS MICRODIALYSIS SAMPLING MICROFLUIDICS

MICROPOWER FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS MICROSCOPY AND SPECTROSCOPY, NEAR-FIELD MICROSCOPY, CONFOCAL

MICROSCOPY, ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY, SCANNING FORCE MICROSCOPY, SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSURGERY

MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY MOBILITY AIDS

MONITORING IN ANESTHESIA

MONITORING, HEMODYNAMIC MONITORING, INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE MONITORING, UMBILICAL ARTERY AND VEIN MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES NANOPARTICLES

NEONATAL MONITORING NEUROLOGICAL MONITORS NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS NEUTRON BEAM THERAPY

NONIONIZING RADIATION, BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY NUCLEAR MEDICINE INSTRUMENTATION NUCLEAR MEDICINE, COMPUTERS IN

NUTRITION, PARENTERAL

OCULAR FUNDUS REFLECTOMETRY

OCULAR MOTILITY RECORDING AND NYSTAGMUS OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS

OPTICAL SENSORS

OPTICAL TWEEZERS

ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES, MATERIALS AND DESIGN FOR

ORTHOPEDICS, PROSTHESIS FIXATION FOR OXYGEN ANALYZERS

OXYGEN MONITORING PACEMAKERS PANCREAS, ARTIFICIAL

PERIPHERAL VASCULAR NONINVASIVE MEASUREMENTS

PHANTOM MATERIALS IN RADIOLOGY PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS PHONOCARDIOGRAPHY

PHOTOGRAPHY, MEDICAL PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS MODELING

PICTURE ARCHIVING AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS

PNEUMOTACHOMETERS POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION POLYMERIC MATERIALS

POROUS MATERIALS FOR BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS

POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY PROSTATE SEED IMPLANTS PULMONARY PHYSIOLOGY QUALITY-OF-LIFE MEASURES, CLINICAL

SIGNIFICANCE OF

RADIATION DOSE PLANNING, COMPUTER-AIDED RADIATION DOSIMETRY FOR ONCOLOGY RADIATION DOSIMETRY, THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION INSTRUMENTATION RADIATION THERAPY, INTENSITY MODULATED RADIATION THERAPY SIMULATOR

RADIATION THERAPY TREATMENT PLANNING, MONTE CARLO CALCULATIONS IN

RADIATION THERAPY, QUALITY ASSURANCE IN RADIOLOGY INFORMATION SYSTEMS RADIONUCLIDE PRODUCTION AND

RADIOACTIVE DECAY RADIOPHARMACEUTICAL DOSIMETRY RADIOSURGERY, STEREOTACTIC RADIOTHERAPY ACCESSORIES RADIOTHERAPY, HEAVY ION RADIOTHERAPY, INTRAOPERATIVE

RADIOTHERAPY, THREE-DIMENSIONAL CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY TREATMENT PLANNING,

OPTIMIZATION OF

RECORDERS, GRAPHIC REHABILITATION AND MUSCLE TESTING

REHABILITATION, COMPUTERS IN COGNITIVE REHABILITATION, ORTHOTICS IN RESIN-BASED COMPOSITES

RESPIRATORY MECHANICS AND GAS EXCHANGE SAFETY PROGRAM, HOSPITAL

SCOLIOSIS, BIOMECHANICS OF SCREEN-FILM SYSTEMS

LIST OF ARTICLES

xix

SEXUAL INSTRUMENTATION SHOCK, TREATMENT OF

SKIN SUBSTITUTE FOR BURNS, BIOACTIVE

SKIN TISSUE ENGINEERING FOR REGENERATION SKIN, BIOMECHANICS OF

SLEEP LABORATORY

SLEEP STUDIES, COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF SPINAL CORD STIMULATION

SPINAL IMPLANTS STATISTICAL METHODS STEREOTACTIC SURGERY

STERILIZATION OF BIOLOGIC SCAFFOLD MATERIALS

STRAIN GAGES TACTILE STIMULATION TELERADIOLOGY

TEMPERATURE MONITORING THERMISTORS THERMOCOUPLES THERMOGRAPHY THERMOMETRY

TISSUE ABLATION TISSUE ENGINEERING TOMOTHERAPY TONOMETRY, ARTERIAL

TOOTH AND JAW, BIOMECHANICS OF TRACER KINETICS

TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NERVE STIMULATION (TENS)

ULTRASONIC IMAGING

ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION IN MEDICINE VASCULAR GRAFT PROSTHESIS VENTILATORS, ACUTE MEDICAL CARE VENTILATORY MONITORING

VISUAL FIELD TESTING VISUAL PROSTHESES X-RAY EQUIPMENT DESIGN

X-RAY QUALITY CONTROL PROGRAM X-RAY THERAPY EQUIPMENT, LOW AND

MEDIUM ENERGY

X-RAYS: INTERACTION WITH MATTER X-RAYS, PRODUCTION OF