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Section 2. Article

Jot down the key information and retell

Political science

To those of you who received honours, awards and distinctions, I say

well done. And to the C students, I say you, too, can be president of the United States. (George W. Bush)

1.Political science is the academic subject centering on the relations between governments and other governments, and between governments and peoples It is the systematic study of the allocation and transfer of power in decision making. Political science, as currently conceived, is a relatively new concept that dates to the nineteenth-century. Prior to this time, the study of politics in the West remained a part of natural philosophy, and it tended to focus on philosophical, historical, and institutional approaches.

2.The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) is often named as the first "political scientist," but his approach differs markedly from what is currently understood to be "political science." Aristotle primarily occupied himself with addressing what sort of political system would best enable the highest human life of eudaimonia (happiness). His method of study falls well short of what is currently considered to be scientific.

3.The ancient Indian approach exemplified in the treatise Arthashastra (written by Kautilya around 300 B.C.E.) similarly differs from the modern approach to studying politics. Kautilya discusses the importance of law, kingly conduct, foreign policy, and administrative practices in an attempt to explain that governments have the responsibility of tending to the well-being (broadly understood) of their people.

4.Niccolò Machiavelli (1469 –1527) is considered to be a founder of modern political science, he was a diplomat, political philosopher, playwright, and a civil servant of the Florentine Republic.The greatest source of Machiavelli's reputation is, of course, The Prince (1532). The main theme of this short book is that all means may be resorted to for the establishment and preservation of authority -- the end justifies the means -- and that the worst and most treacherous acts of the ruler are justified by the wickedness and treachery of the governed.

5.With the 21st century, the importance of political science has increased tenfold, as what was previously scoffed as guesswork at best has time and again proved to be accurate, and with new scientific techniques, empirical outcomes can be formulated and verified. The importance of political science lies in using past behavior to successfully predict the future, the future course of a national policies and their effects on global politics and other disciplines.All this makes political science a very important field of study in a world full of political turmoil where our only hope of a better future lies in a better political system.

6.Political science is commonly divided into three distinct sub-disciplines which together constitute the field: political philosophy, comparative politics and international relations. Political philosophy is the reasoning for an absolute normative government, laws and similar questions and their distinctive characteristics. Comparative politics is the science of comparison and teaching of different types of constitutions, political actors, legislature and associated fields, all of them from an intrastate perspective. International relations deals with the interaction between nation-states as well as intergovernmental and transnational organizations.

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