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14. Read the text and get ready to speak about the Castle of Neswizh: the castle of neswizh: our architectural legacy

The Castle of Neswizh is овд of the most outstanding architectura monuments of the Republic of Bela| rus. This castle has been constructed! in the city of Neswizh in Grodno r&J gion. The mighty and beautiful archil tectural complex draws huge attention of tourists, archeologists, historianj as it is a part of the ancient history of the Renublic.

During the board of Nikolay Radzivill — the prince of Neswizh, the con­struction of the Castle of Neswizh was started in 1583. Even today it is unknown, what forced to construct the castle os the place of the old wooden one. Probably, the reason for this was the fire. However it is possible, that the decision of the prince was affected by his trip to Italy where prince Radzivill spent the winter of 1581. Probably, that is why the reconstruction of the new castle was entrusted to Italian architect Giovanni Bernardoni.

The Castle of Neswizh is erected on a peninsula, on the right coast of the river Usha. It is surrounded by a wide moat, filled with water. The level of water in it was regularly adjusted. The castle was actually the island, with two water boundaries. To get in it was possible only with the help of the long bridge across the lake. In case of danger the bridge could be easily dismantled.

The Castle of Neswizh had the form of a quadrangle and the size 170x120 meters, surrounded by a high earthen shaft. The shaft was enclosed with stones and the entrenchments which were built behind it.

A spacious castle yard was surrounded by three buildings. There was the main building with the apartments of the prince opposite to the gate. In the corners of the rectangular building there were traditional octahedral turrets. The massive three-tier building wim a high tower was erected to the right of the entrance in the castle yard. Barracks and separate economic services were placed there. The third building (the economic one) stood in the yard to the left of the entrance.

The shaft of the castle covered all the ground floor of the building from bom­bardment. There were rooms of subsidiary services inside the shaft, where four secret exits could be found.

From the external side of the moat was a wide road which was protected by a low earthen embankment. From the western and northern part of the embankment there was the moat, and from the southern and eastern — deep ponds. The big tower from which it was possible to supervise the attacks on the bridge was built opposite to it in order to protect the territory of the castle from the northern side. A lot of years ago the Castle of Neswizh was considered as one of the most powerful and perfect constructions of this type. Thanks to its architectural construction the Castle of Neswizh has sustained many attacks from the enemy's part.

The city strengthening and constructions were basically finished by the end of the 16th century. The castle was enclosed with the shaft which was like a pen­tagon with seven towers, which protected the town from different directions. To get inside the castle was possible through the gates: Slutskie, Kletskie, Vilenskie, Mirskie and Zamkowie. The territory of the city was surrounded by the moat, connected with the river Usha. The drawbridge was constructed in front of the gate. Small monasteries.with the complexes of stone constructions which stood in favorable places had a great value and closed the road to the castle. They were serious obstacles on the way of the enemy and protected the Castle of Neswizh. The moat around the town carried out one more function: it was nursery for the tish. But people were not allowed fishing there.

The Castle of Neswizh was a rich cultural centre some years ago. The library, portrait and picture galleries, a rich collection of the weapon from "all over the world, well-known belts of Slutsk, magnificent furniture, collections of coins and medals were placed in it. This castle preserves the former greatness even now. It is included into the architectural complex of ancient constructions of the Republic of Belarus and represents property and heritage of our country. Annually millions of tourists from all over the world and our republic come to admire this ancient monument, greatness of its ancient constructions. The castle of Neswizh has gone through many changes, reorganizations and restorations, but despite of this it does not lose its beauty and represents architectural value of the Republic of Belarus.

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