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Is the sun good or bad for us?

SO

DO

DON’T

What are the positive effects of the sun?

1. It makes us feel good.

2. ____________

3. ____________

What are the negative effects of the sun?

1. It can give us skin cancer.

2. _______________

3. _______________

1. Go in the sun in moderation. etc.

1. Get too much sun. etc.

Listening Comprehension Text “Stars”

Part A. Pre-listening activities

Task 1. Make sure that you know the following words.

essential – существенный, важный

roughly – приблизительно

constellation – созвездие (the Great Bear)

enormous – громадный, огромный

to be related to – быть связанным, относиться

to maintain – сохранять, содержать, поддерживать

common – распространенный

dwarf – карлик, карликовое животное или растение

Task 2. Before listening answer the questions.

  1. Why do scientists study stars?

  2. What types of stars do astronomers classify?

  3. What constellations do you know? What are they famous for?

  4. How do you understand the term Milky Way?

Part B. Listening activities

Task 1. As you listen to the tape, make brief notes to help you answer the following questions.

  1. Is there enormous variety in the mass different stars contain?

  2. How do stars compare in mass with the sun?

  3. What are the differences between stars?

  4. What are stars little bigger than the earth called?

  5. On the basis of what is the main classification of stars focused on?

Task 2. Listen to the tape once more and

  1. Fill in the gaps.

    1. Stars contain … amounts of matter.

    2. There are no any stars with a mass less … or more … of the mass of the sun.

    3. The name of the largest star is …

    4. Its diameter is …

    5. Stars must have high internal temperatures to …

    6. Surface temperature is related to …

  2. Note down the temperature of:

very hot stars …

intermediate stars …

cooler stars …

  1. Note down the colours of :

very hot stars …

intermediate stars …

cooler stars …

Part C. After Listening Activities

Task 1. Discuss in pairs.

  1. Stars’ size and mass.

  2. Surface and internal temperatures of stars.

Task 2. Summarize the information about the properties of stars (in writing).

Revision

Ex. 1. Here is an article about Uranus. Discuss with a partner the best way to translate the words in brackets.

Uranus

The first planet to be discovered since ancient times was Uranus. In 1781 William Herschel, an amateur astronomer, was carrying out a survey of the sky when he spotted a greenish disc. At first he thought it was a comet, but its movement showed it to be a planet (в два раза дальше) than Saturn. Astronomers were able to work out that Uranus is another gas giant, (меньше) than Jupiter and Saturn but still (в четыре раза больше) than Earth. Herschel himself discovered two moons circling the planet, and later astronomers found three more. One of (самый удивительный) things about Uranus is that it is tipped up, effectively circling the sun on its side. In 1977, scientists found a set of dark, narrow rings around the planet. And that was the sum total of our knowledge of Uranus until Voyager 2 reached the planet in 1986.

Ex. 2. Fill in the text with the appropriate word from the box.

crescent, satellites, rotation, cycle, illuminated(2), approximately, average, revolution, circles, celestial, axis shadow

Although closer to the earth than any other (1) ___ body, the moon is nevertheless an (2) ___ of 384,400 km (almost 240,000 mi) away. Its diameter of 3,476 km (92,160 mi) – a little more than a quarter of the earth’s diameter – places it among the largest (3) ___ in the solar system. The moon (4) ___ the earth every 271/3 days and, like the earth, turns on its (5) ___ as it revolves. In the case of the moon the (6) ___ keeps pace exactly with the (7) ___ so the moon turns completely around only once during each circuit of the earth. This means that the same face of our satellite is always turned toward us and that the other side remains hidden from the earth, though not from spacecraft. The steady pull of the earth’s gravity on one side of the moon has made this side bulge slightly – but measurably – toward the earth.

Each month the moon completes its familiar (8) ___ of phases. First there is a thin (9) ___ in the western sky at sunset which grows and moves eastward (relative to the stars): then a half-moon, until after 2 weeks the full moon rises in the east at sunset; next the moon wanes, becoming a thin crescent that rises just before the sun; finally it disappears altogether a few days before its next appearance as a (10) ___.

These different aspects represent the amounts of the moon’s (11) ___ surface visible to us in different parts of its orbit. When the moon is full, it is on the opposite side of the earth from the sun, so the side facing us is fully (12) ___. In the “dark of the moon” (or new moon), it is moving (13) ___ between us and the sun, so the side toward the earth is in (14) ___.

Ex. 3. Make complete sentences out of the following notes. Then arrange the sentences into one paragraph. Make sure that the paragraph makes sense, and that the sentences follow each other logically.

  • The/part/galaxy/stars/Milky Way/all/of/our/of/the/are

______________________________________________________

  • analysing/the/scientists/to find out/starlight/nature/the/of/the/befo-re/techniques/most/physical/stars/of/were discovered/didn’t expect

_________________________________________________________________________________

  • member/immense/stars/of/our/a/an/of/sun/aggregate/is

_________________________________________________________________________________

  • birth/evolution/we/its/star/trace/to/death/maturity/through/a/from/its/the/in fact/of/ are able to

_________________________________________________________________________________

  • aggregates/are/universe/there/galaxies/and/many/the/in/these/are called

_________________________________________________________________________________

  • we/deal/have/however/information/of/on/a/detailed/stars/of/thousands/

great/today

_________________________________________________________________________________

  • others/vast/virtually/each/empty/the/by/reaches/space/from/of/is separated

_________________________________________________________________________________

  • sun/the/other/even/telescope/to/a/of/light/point/powerful/star/no/

most/the/than/more/than/as/appears

_________________________________________________________________________________

Ex. 4. Translate the text into Russian (in writing).

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