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13 Sleep-Disordered Breathing

105

 

 

Step 9: Plan a sleep study (polysomnography) before discharge

Although some patients may already have the diagnosis, majority of the patients presenting to the ICU with acute respiratory failure had no prior diagnosis.

If the diagnosis of OSAS or OHS is suspected, a bedside sleep study may be performed for both diagnostic and titration purposes. However, if the bedside sleep laboratory is not available, the patient can be treated empirically with NIV with the help of a pulse oximeter, as shown in Fig. 13.1.

Diagnostic Criteria for SDB

The newly revised International Classification of Sleep Disorders defines obstructive sleep apnea–hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) as when a patient has a respiratory distress index (RDI) (apneas+hypopneas+respiratory effort-related arousals+flow limitations) of five or more than five per hour of sleep with the appropriate clinical presentation such as excessive daytime sleepiness, unrefreshing sleep, fatigue, insomnia, mood disorders, or other neurocognitive disturbances.

The severity of SDB is assessed by the number of abnormal breathing events per hour of sleep, the degree of sleepiness, and the degree of oxygen desaturation during sleep.

Mild

AHI or RDI

5–15/h

Moderate

AHI or RDI

16–30/h

Severe

AHI or RDI

>30/h AHI

AHI apnea–hypopnea index, RDI respiratory disturbance index

Diagnostic Criteria for OHS

BMI more than 30 kg/m2

Awake arterial hypercapnia (PaCO2 > 45 mmHg)

Exclusion of other causes of hypoventilation

Polysomnography revealing sleep hypoventilation with nocturnal hypercapnia with or without obstructive apnea–hypopnea events

Suggested Reading

1.BaHammam A. Acute ventilatory failure complicating obesity hypoventilation: update on a “critical care syndrome.” Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2010;16:543–51.

2.Lee WY, Mokhlesi B. Diagnosis and management of obesity hypoventilation syndrome in the ICU. Crit Care Clin. 2008;24(3):533–49.

A comprehensive review on morbidity, mortality, and OHS management.

3.Malhotra A, Hillman D. Obesity and the lung: 3. Obesity, respiration and intensive care. Thorax. 2008;63(10):925–31.

The important physiological concepts are illustrated by focusing on obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, abdominal compartment syndrome, and ventilatory management of the obese patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

4.American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force. Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definitions and measurement techniques in clinical research. Sleep. 1999;22:667–89.

106

J.C. Suri

 

 

Obese patients with sleep hypoventilation have an increased risk of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. Early diagnosis and implementation of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation is recommended for these patients.

5.Buckle P, Pouliot Z, Millar T, et al. Polysomnography in acutely ill intensive care unit patients. Chest. 1992;102(1):288–9.

6.Fletcher EC, Shah A. “Near miss” death in obstructive sleep apnea: a critical care syndrome. Crit Care Med. 1991;19(9):1158–64.

The objective of this study was to alert critical care physicians to the syndrome of obstructive sleep apnea with respiratory failure (“near miss” death) and to elucidate characteristics that might allow earlier recognition and treatment of such patients.

Websites

1.www.sleepapnea.org/resources/pubs/mayo.pdf

Postoperative complications in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

2.http://Chestjournal.chestpubs.org/content/118/3/591.full

Cardiac rhythm disturbances in the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

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