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vi

Contents at a Glance

Introduction

xvi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part I

LAN Switching 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1

LAN Switching Review and Configuring Cisco 2950 LAN Switches 5

Chapter 2

Spanning Tree Protocol

31

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3

Virtual LANs and Trunking 67

 

 

 

 

Part II

TCP/IP 95

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4

IP Addressing and Subnetting

97

 

 

 

Chapter 5

RIP, IGRP, and Static Route Concepts and Configuration

141

Chapter 6

OSPF and EIGRP Concepts and Configuration 185

 

Chapter 7

Advanced Routing Protocol Topics

219

 

 

Chapter 8

Advanced TCP/IP Topics

251

 

 

 

 

Part III

Wide-Area Networks 299

 

 

 

 

Chapter 9

Point-to-Point Leased Line Implementation

301

 

Chapter 10

ISDN and Dial-on-Demand Routing

321

 

 

Chapter 11

Frame Relay

371

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part IV

Network Security

421

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 12

IP Access Control List Security

423

 

 

 

Part V

Final Preparation

457

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 13

Final Preparation

459

 

 

 

 

 

Part VI

Appendixes

493

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix A

Answers to the “Do I Know This Already?” Quizzes and Q&A Questions 495

Appendix B

Decimal to Binary Conversion Chart

555

 

 

Appendix C

Using the Simulation Software for Hands-on Exercises

561

Appendix D

Comparisons of Dynamic Routing Protocols

567

 

Appendix E

Configuring Cisco 1900 Switches 577

 

 

Glossary 599

Index 610

vii

Contents

Introduction

xvi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part I

LAN Switching

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1

LAN Switching Review and Configuring Cisco 2950 LAN Switches

5

 

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foundation Topics

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brief Review of LAN Switching

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Forward-Versus-Filter Decision

11

 

 

 

 

How Switches Learn MAC Addresses

12

 

 

 

Forwarding Unknown Unicasts and Broadcasts 13

 

 

LAN Switch Logic Summary

14

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic Configuration and Operation Commands for the Cisco 2950 Switch

14

 

Basic Switch Operation

16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typical Basic Administrative Configuration

20

 

 

Port Security Configuration

25

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foundation Summary 28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Q&A 29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2

Spanning Tree Protocol

31

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

31

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foundation Topics

36

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spanning Tree Protocol

36

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What IEEE 802.1d Spanning Tree Does

36

 

 

 

How Spanning Tree Works 38

 

 

 

 

 

 

Electing the Root and Discovering Root Ports and Designated Ports

39

 

Reacting to Changes in the Network

42

 

 

 

Spanning Tree Protocol Summary

45

 

 

 

 

Optional STP Features

46

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EtherChannel

47

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PortFast

48

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rapid Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1w)

48

 

 

 

 

 

RSTP Link and Edge Types

49

 

 

 

 

 

 

RSTP Port States

50

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RSTP Port Roles

50

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RSTP Convergence

52

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Edge-Type Behavior and PortFast

52

 

 

 

 

Link-Type Shared

52

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Link-Type Point-to-Point

52

 

 

 

 

 

 

An Example of Speedy RSTP Convergence

53

 

 

Spanning Tree Protocol Configuration

56

 

 

 

 

Basic STP show Commands

57

 

 

 

 

 

 

Changing STP Port Costs and Bridge Priority

58

 

 

EtherChannel Configuration

60

 

 

 

 

 

viii

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foundation Summary

62

 

 

Foundation Summary

64

 

 

Q&A

65

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3

Virtual LANs and Trunking 67

 

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 67

 

Foundation Topics

71

 

 

Review of Virtual LAN Concepts

71

 

Trunking with ISL and 802.1Q

72

 

ISL

73

 

 

 

 

 

802.1Q

73

 

 

 

 

ISL and 802.1Q Compared

74

 

VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP)

76

 

How VTP Works

76

 

 

VTP Pruning

78

 

 

 

VLAN and Trunking Configuration

79

 

 

 

VLAN Configuration for a Single Switch

80

 

 

VLAN Trunking Configuration

84

 

 

 

Foundation Summary

89

 

 

 

 

 

Q&A

91

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part II

TCP/IP

95

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4

IP Addressing and Subnetting

97

 

 

 

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

97

 

 

 

Foundation Topics

102

 

 

 

 

 

IP Addressing Review

102

 

 

 

 

 

IP Subnetting

104

 

 

 

 

 

 

Analyzing and Interpreting IP Addresses and Subnets 106

 

 

Math Operations Used to Answer Subnetting Questions

107

 

 

Converting IP Addresses from Decimal to Binary and Back Again 107

 

 

The Boolean AND Operation

109

 

 

 

 

Prefix Notation

111

 

 

 

 

 

How Many Hosts and How Many Subnets? 111

 

 

What Is the Subnet Number, and What Are the IP Addresses in the Subnet? 116

 

 

Finding the Subnet Number

 

116

 

 

 

 

Finding the Subnet Broadcast Address

118

 

 

 

Finding the Range of Valid IP Addresses in a Subnet

119

 

 

Finding the Answers Without Using Binary 121

 

 

Which Subnet Masks Meet the Stated Design Requirements? 127

 

What Are the Other Subnet Numbers? 130

 

 

Foundation Summary

135

 

 

 

 

 

Q&A

137

 

 

 

 

 

 

ix

Chapter 5

RIP, IGRP, and Static Route Concepts and Configuration

141

 

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

142

 

 

 

Foundation Topics

145

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Configuring and Testing Static Routes 145

 

 

Configuring Static Routes

147

 

 

 

Extended ping Command

147

 

 

 

Distance Vector Concepts

150

 

 

 

 

Distance Vector Loop-Avoidance Features 153

 

 

Route Poisoning

154

 

 

 

 

 

Split Horizon

155

 

 

 

 

 

 

Split Horizon with Poison Reverse

157

 

 

Hold-Down Timer

 

158

 

 

 

 

 

Triggered (Flash) Updates

160

 

 

 

RIP and IGRP

160

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Configuring RIP and IGRP

161

 

 

 

 

Basic RIP and IGRP Configuration

162

 

 

IGRP Configuration

164

 

 

 

 

 

IGRP Metrics

166

 

 

 

 

 

 

Examination of RIP and IGRP debug and show Commands

167

 

Issues When Multiple Routes to the Same Subnet Exist 173

 

 

Administrative Distance

176

 

 

 

Foundation Summary 178

 

 

 

 

 

Q&A 181

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6

OSPF and EIGRP Concepts and Configuration 185

 

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 185

 

 

Foundation Topics

190

 

 

 

Link-State Routing Protocol and OSPF Concepts

190

 

Steady-State Operation

193

 

 

Loop Avoidance

194

 

 

 

Scaling OSPF Through Hierarchical Design

194

 

OSPF Areas

195

 

 

 

Stub Areas

197

 

 

 

Summary: Comparing Link-State and OSPF to Distance Vector Protocols 197

 

Balanced Hybrid Routing Protocol and EIGRP Concepts 198

 

EIGRP Loop Avoidance

199

 

 

EIGRP Summary

201

 

 

 

OSPF Configuration

201

 

 

 

OSPF Single-Area Configuration 202

 

 

OSPF Configuration with Multiple Areas 204

 

EIGRP Configuration

209

 

 

 

Foundation Summary

212

 

 

 

Q&A 216

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7

Advanced Routing Protocol Topics 219

 

 

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

219

 

 

Foundation Topics 223

 

 

 

Route Summarization and Variable-Length Subnet Masks 223

 

Route Summarization Concepts

224

 

 

VLSM 228

 

 

 

 

Route Summarization Strategies

230

 

 

Sample “Best” Summary on Seville 231

 

Sample “Best” Summary on Yosemite

232

 

Classless Routing Protocols and Classless Routing 232

 

Classless and Classful Routing Protocols

233

 

Autosummarization 233

 

 

 

Classful and Classless Routing

238

 

 

Default Routes

238

 

 

 

Classless Routing 242

 

 

 

Foundation Summary

245

 

 

 

Q&A 247

 

 

 

Chapter 8

Advanced TCP/IP Topics 251

 

 

 

 

 

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

251

 

 

 

Foundation Topics

257

 

 

 

 

 

 

Scaling the IP Address Space for the Internet

257

 

CIDR 258

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Private Addressing

259

 

 

 

 

 

 

Network Address Translation

260

 

 

 

Static NAT

261

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dynamic NAT

264

 

 

 

 

 

 

Overloading NAT with Port Address Translation (PAT) 265

 

Translating Overlapping Addresses 267

 

 

NAT Configuration

269

 

 

 

 

 

 

Static NAT Configuration

270

 

 

 

Dynamic NAT Configuration

272

 

 

 

NAT Overload Configuration (PAT Configuration) 275

 

Miscellaneous TCP/IP Topics

277

 

 

 

 

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)

277

 

ICMP Echo Request and Echo Reply

278

 

Destination Unreachable ICMP Message

278

 

Time Exceeded ICMP Message

280

 

 

 

Redirect ICMP Message

283

 

 

 

 

Secondary IP Addressing

283

 

 

 

 

 

FTP and TFTP

285

 

 

 

 

 

 

FTP

286

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TFTP

287

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MTU and Fragmentation

288

 

 

 

 

ISL and 802.1Q Configuration on Routers

289

 

Foundation Summary

292

 

 

 

 

 

 

Q&A 296

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

xi

Part III

Wide-Area Networks

299

 

 

Chapter 9

Point-to-Point Leased Line Implementation 301

 

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

301

 

Foundation Topics 305

 

 

 

Review of WAN Basics

305

 

 

 

Physical Components of Point-to-Point Leased Lines 306

 

Data-Link Protocols for Point-to-Point Leased Lines 307

 

HDLC and PPP Compared

308

 

HDLC and PPP Configuration

310

 

PPP-Specific Features 311

 

 

 

Looped Link Detection 312

 

Enhanced Error Detection

313

 

Authentication Over WAN Links

 

313

 

PAP and CHAP Authentication

314

 

Foundation Summary

316

 

 

 

Q&A 318

 

 

 

Chapter 10 ISDN and Dial-on-Demand Routing

321

 

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

321

 

 

Foundation Topics

326

 

 

 

 

ISDN Protocols and Design

326

 

 

 

Typical Uses of ISDN

326

 

 

 

ISDN Channels

327

 

 

 

 

ISDN Protocols

328

 

 

 

 

ISDN BRI Function Groups and Reference Points

330

ISDN PRI Function Groups and Reference Points

334

BRI and PRI Encoding and Framing

335

 

PRI Encoding

335

 

 

 

 

PRI Framing

335

 

 

 

 

BRI Framing and Encoding

336

 

 

ISDN Configuration and Dial-on-Demand Routing 336

DDR Legacy Concepts and Configuration 338

DDR Step 1: Routing Packets Out the Interface to Be Dialed 339

DDR Step 2: Determining the Subset of the Packets That Trigger the Dialing

Process 340

DDR Step 3:

Dialing (Signaling) 342

DDR Step 4:

Determining When the Connection Is Terminated 345

ISDN BRI Configuration 345

Summary of Legacy DDR Configuration 347

ISDN and DDR show and debug Commands 348

ISDN PRI Configuration

351

 

Configuring a T1 or E1 Controller 352

Full PRI Configuration

353

 

DDR Configuration with Dialer Profiles

354

Multilink PPP 359

 

 

ISDN and DDR Configuration Summary

361

xii

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foundation Summary

363

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Q&A

367

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 11

Frame Relay 371

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

371

 

 

 

 

Foundation Topics

376

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frame Relay Protocols

376

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frame Relay Standards

378

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Virtual Circuits

379

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LMI and Encapsulation Types

381

 

 

 

 

DLCI Addressing Details 383

 

 

 

 

 

Network Layer Concerns with Frame Relay

388

 

 

 

Layer 3 Addressing with Frame Relay

388

 

 

 

Frame Relay Layer 3 Addressing: One Subnet Containing All Frame Relay DTEs 388

 

 

Frame Relay Layer 3 Addressing: One Subnet Per VC

389

 

 

Frame Relay Layer 3 Addressing: Hybrid Approach 391

 

 

Broadcast Handling

392

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frame Relay Service Interworking

393

 

 

 

 

Frame Relay Configuration

395

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Fully-Meshed Network with One IP Subnet

397

 

 

 

Frame Relay Address Mapping

399

 

 

 

 

A Partially-Meshed Network with One IP Subnet Per VC

404

 

A Partially-Meshed Network with Some Fully-Meshed Parts 409

 

Foundation Summary

414

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Q&A

417

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part IV

Network Security

421

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 12 IP Access Control List Security

 

423

 

 

 

 

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

423

 

 

 

 

Foundation Topics

427

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Standard IP Access Control Lists

 

427

 

 

 

 

IP Standard ACL Concepts

427

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wildcard Masks

430

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Standard IP Access List Configuration

432

 

 

 

 

Standard IP ACL: Example 2

434

 

 

 

 

Extended IP Access Control Lists

 

437

 

 

 

 

Extended IP ACL Concepts

437

 

 

 

 

 

Extended IP ACL Configuration

439

 

 

 

 

 

Extended IP Access Lists: Example 1

440

 

 

 

 

Extended IP Access Lists: Example 2

442

 

 

xiii

 

Miscellaneous ACL Topics

443

 

 

Named IP Access Lists

443

 

 

Controlling Telnet Access with ACLs

446

 

ACL Implementation Considerations

446

 

Foundation Summary 449

 

 

 

Q&A 453

 

 

 

Part V

Final Preparation

457

 

 

Chapter 13

Final Preparation

459

 

 

 

Suggestions for Final Preparation 459

 

 

Preparing for the Exam Experience

460

 

Final Lab Scenarios

462

 

 

 

Scenario 1 462

 

 

 

Scenario 1, Part A: Planning

462

 

 

 

 

Solutions to Scenario 1, Part A: Planning

463

 

 

Scenario 1, Part B: Configuration

464

 

 

 

Solutions to Scenario 1, Part B: Configuration

464

 

Scenario 1, Part C: Verification and Questions

466

 

Solutions to Scenario 1, Part C: Verification and Questions

473

Scenario 2 474

 

 

 

 

 

Scenario 2, Part A: Planning

474

 

 

 

 

Solutions to Scenario 2, Part A: Planning

477

 

 

Scenario 2, Part B: Configuration

479

 

 

 

Solutions to Scenario 2, Part B: Configuration

479

 

Scenario 2, Part C: Verification and Questions

481

 

Solutions to Scenario 2, Part C: Verification and Questions

489

Part VI

Appendixes 493

Appendix A

Answers to the “Do I Know This Already?” Quizzes and Q&A Questions 495

Appendix B

Decimal to Binary Conversion Table 555

Appendix C

Using the Simulation Software for the Hands-on Exercises 561

Appendix D

Comparisons of Dynamic Routing Protocols 567

Appendix E

Configuring Cisco 1900 Switches 577

Glossary 599

Index 610