Добавил:
Upload Опубликованный материал нарушает ваши авторские права? Сообщите нам.
Вуз: Предмет: Файл:
lectures po srav_grammatike.doc
Скачиваний:
0
Добавлен:
09.11.2019
Размер:
884.22 Кб
Скачать

Indefinites

Compare above on the elements –сь, -будь-, and –небудь with adverbs of location.

Коли-небудь at any time, ever

колись some day or other, formerly, once

коли-будь whenever, at any time

коли-не-коли at times, from time to time, seldom

будь-коли at any time

де-не-де now and then

десь-колись only now and then

якось once (not long ago), the other day

подеколи, деколи now and then, sometimes, at times

NEGATIVES

ніколи never

Ніколи There is no time (to do X).

Quantitative adverbs (adverbs of degree)

Adverbs that are described as ‘quantitative’, or adverbs of degree, relate to the questions ‘how much? How strongly?’; clearly the formations based on collective numerals (втроє, and similar) could be included here, but they are not, as numerical adverbs deserve separate treatment.

Скільки? How much? (cf. On the pronominal use of this form)

багато much (of + gen.)

мало little (of + gen.)

чимало a great deal (of + gen.)

більш more

вельми very

дедалі ever more … (+ comparative)

досить enough, sufficiently

Дуже very, strongly

дужче more strongly (comparative of дуже)

здебільшого mostly

зовсім quite

ледве hardly

майже almost

мало не, мало що не almost, nearly

менш less

надто too much

стільки so much, as much, so many

стільки … скільки … so … as …, as… as …

тільки only

трохи a little, little

трошки very little (diminutive of трохи)

трошечки very little (diminutive of трошки)

чимало quite a lot, considerably

чимраз ever more (+ comparative)

чим (більше) тим (ліпше) the (more) the (better)

ADVERBS OF MANNER

Adverbs of ‘manner’ in part answer the question ‘In what way is an action carried out?’; in this sense, they parallel the function of the deadjectival adverbs. The two sets of forms differ in that (i) adverbs of manner consist of a small set of forms (whereas deadjectival adverbs can theoretically be formed from every adjective) and (ii) they are not generally deadjectival.

Як? Яким способом? Яким чином? How? In what manner?

Так thus

байдуже, байдужно indifferently

абияк somehow

раптом suddenly

мовчки silently

навмисне on purpose

дарма, даремно, марно in vain, vainly

надаремно, надаремне to no purpose

недарма, недаром not in vain

даром, дарма gratis, free of charge

інакше, інак in a different way

нишком quietly

гаразд skilfully, well

мимохіть involuntarily

крадькома stealthily

босоніж barefoot

спросоння while asleep, in one’s sleep

гуртом together, in common

по-батьківськи, по-батьківському paternally, in a fatherly manner

по-нашому, (по-вашому, and so on) in our (your, and so on) manner,

as we (you, likewise) do things по-українському, по-українськи in the Ukrainian manner

бігом running, at a run

заразом simultaneously, all at once

тайком secretly

цілком, цілковито wholly, thoroughly, entirely

жартома in jest, in a joking manner

верхи on horseback

Ukrainian is particularly rich in adverbs of manner; it is not possible to list every form of this kind in the language, but the list above may be taken as more than representative.

‘IN LANGUAGE X’

There are a number of ways of saying ‘in Ukrainian’, ‘in English’, and so on. Two of these are identical to the expressions ‘in the Ukrainian manner’:

по-українському in Ukrainian

по-українськи

по-англійському in English

по-англійськи

The two formations are described in some dictionaries and grammars as being interchangeable, although по-українськи, and so on is especially com­mon in areas with a strong Russian presence (as it is all but identical to the corresponding Russian expression). A more common alternative, currently growing in popularity (especially in new publications) is the feminine instru­mental singular:

українською (where мовою ‘language’ is understood but not always англійською expressed)

Тут вы можете оставить комментарий к выбранному абзацу или сообщить об ошибке.

Оставленные комментарии видны всем.

Соседние файлы в предмете [НЕСОРТИРОВАННОЕ]