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Практикум по переводу лексических трудностей.doc
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Holiday is a contraction of holy and day, holidays originally represented special religious days. This word has evolved in general usage to mean any extra special day of rest (as opposed to regular days of rest such as the weekend).


A festival is an event, usually staged by a local community, which centers on some unique aspect of that community. There are numerous types of festivals in the world. Though many have religious origins, others involve seasonal change or have some cultural significance.


In the United Kingdom the word "vacation" referred specifically to the long summer break. The French term is similar to the American English: "Les Vacances." The term derives from the fact that, in the past, upper-class families would literally move to a summer home for part of the year, leaving their usual family home vacant for countrywide holidays.

Sabbatical, gap year or career break

Longer breaks from a career or occupation also exist, such as a sabbatical, gap year or career break.

Types of holidays:

Holidays are either religious or secular:

  • Most holidays are linked to faiths and religious. They are religious holidays.

  • Secular or non religious holidays can be national (Independence Day) or international (Mother Day)

2. Translate sentences from Russian into English

  1. В этом году я взяла отпуск на две недели, чтобы отправиться в путешествие по Европе.

  2. В Европе после окончания школы и перед поступлением в университет часто практикуется годовой перерыв в учебе, когда молодые люди путешествуют или работают, накапливают опыт.

  3. Работники крупных фирм предпочитают брать отпуск за свой счёт и затем путешествовать либо отдыхать на престижном курорте.

  4. Нецерковные праздники могут быть национальными и международными.

  5. Многие праздники берут своё начало от языческих церемоний и обрядов.

  6. Только светских праздников начитывается больше семидесяти, а если прибавить к этой цифре религиозные праздники? Да, любит русский народ праздновать!

  7. Христианский народный праздник устраивается в память святого Николая Чудотворца.

  8. Пасха-это религиозный праздник, который отмечается каждый год после Великого Поста.


1. Read, translate and retell any text you like.

Festivals in Europe are great because you can shop, eat local foods, listen to music and make friends…all in the same place and at the same time. And while you can do that just about anywhere, Europe’s special events offer their own flair.

Take Carnival: these celebrations take place all over the world, but only Venice’s Carnival features grand masquerade balls. Christmas Markets are now held in many places, but they have their origins in Germany, France and Austria. And while you can attend beer festivals in nearly every country in Europe, nothing is quite like Oktoberfest.

Pack your bags, put on your partying hat, and check out some of the best festivals and events Europe has to offer.

1. Christmas Markets – all over Europe

Christmas Markets originated in Germany, Austria, and France, but are now held all over Europe. Each year during the four weeks of Advent, colorful street markets associated with Christmas pop up in almost every European city. Some markets open as early as mid-November, while most open during the first week of December.

Why do visitors love these markets? The idea of shopping for Christmas presents in a stress-free environment is a big factor for their popularity. Then there is the festive atmosphere, with carols being sung each evening, Christmas trees being lit up, and a variety of treats which attack your senses, such as the roasted chestnuts and the spicy gingerbread. And let’s not forget the mulled wine, which is by far the best way to get warm during winter in Europe. Hand made jewels, toys, beeswax candles, and Christmas ornaments make excellent gifts for the family back home.

The Dresden Christmas market is one of the oldest in Europe and was first held in 1434. It has over 250 stalls and attracts about 2 million visitors each year. Nuremberg, Cologne and Munich are also home to incredible Christmas Markets, complete with traditional foods and music.

Another famous European Christmas Market takes place in Vienna in front of the Town Hall. It starts early, in mid-November, and comprises about 150 stalls, and if you plan to avoid the crowds, this is an excellent choice. Also in the area, you can check out the Christmas Market held in Budapest before heading to Prague to visit the market in the Old Town Square.

Expect almost high season prices for both transport and accommodation if you plan to visit any of the popular Christmas markets.  Fly into a larger airport (i.e. Munich or Budapest) and the travel by train or bus to your desired destination. Book the tickets in advance, and if you plan to visit several countries, consider a railpass. As for accommodation, a good option is staying in a pension.