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методические указания 2012.doc
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4.5. Read the text and speak about the main mineral requirements for growth according to the plan:

1. Importance of mineral deficiency.

2. Calcium or phosphorus deficiency in young animals.

3. Well-cured legume hay as the best insurance against a lack of calcium.

4. Lack of iron in the ration of suckling pigs.

On account of the large amounts of minerals, especial­ly calcium and phosphorus, that are required to build the skeleton and other parts of the body, normal growth can­not be expected unless the ration amply meets these mine­ral needs. A lack of minerals may be much more serious to a young animal than a lack of protein of total digestible nutrients lack.

If the ration is very deficient in calcium or phosphorus, rickets may result, and the animal may be permanently crippled or deformed if the deficiency continues too long. Also, the skeleton may be seriously reduced in strength and the bones may be so fragile that they will break under ordinary stresses and strains in later life.

For calves, lambs and foals the best insurance against a lack of calcium is to feed sufficient legume hay throughout the winter and to provide good pasture during the growing season. Well-cured legume hay has not only an abundance of calcium, but also sun-cured hay is the best source among common feeds of vitamin D, which the animals must have in order to assimilate the calcium and phosphorus in their rations.

In the case of suckling pigs not on pasture, there may be anaemia caused by a lack of iron.

4.6. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. У телят при недостатке минералов и витамина D в кормах развивается рахит. 2. Бо­бовое сено является лучшей профилактикой рахита не только для телят, но и для ягнят и жеребят. 3. Летом скот обыч­но находится на пастбище целый день. 4. При недостат­ке в рационе кальция и фосфора кости животных ста­новятся очень хрупкими и могут легко ломаться. 5. Мо­локо легко усваивается организмом. 6. Сено, высушенное на солнце — лучший источник витаминов. 7. Необходи­мо, чтобы рацион удовлетворял потребность животных в минеральных веществах. 8. Поросята часто болеют анемией.

  1. Vitamins

1. Vitamin a

1.1. Read the following text and translate it into Russian:

Vita, the first part of the word vitamin means life. Vitamin A is a colorless substance of great potency which plays a vital role in the animal body. It maintains the normal structure of nervous tissue and helps the body to resist diseases. It is also necessary for the successful performance of the reproductive processes.

Vitamin А is found in the fish-liver oils, egg уоlk, 1iver, butter, cream, whole mi1k, kidneys, and other animal pro­ducts. Meat muscle contains little or no vitamin А. Foods of plant origin dо not contain vitamin А, but manу оf them contain instead yellow pigments from which the vitamin сan be formed in the аnimal body. These pigments аrе саrotenes, and four different compounds are recognized, the most important of whiсh is beta carotene. These substances, known as provitamins, can be converted into vitamin А in the intestinal wa11. Beta carotene yields two mо1есu1­es of vitamin A. Some animals dо not convert а11 the рrо­vitamin of their food into vitamin А but store some of the provitamin аs such.

Night-blindness is one of the first clinical manifestations of vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin A deficiency in swine may be confused with rickets, for both produce difficulty in walking, including stiffness. In severe cases pigs may become paralysed so that they cannot rise to their feet.

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