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методические указания 2012.doc
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2.2.Answer the following questions:

  1. What are swine largely fed on?

  2. Do swine grow slower than cattle, horses or sheep?

  3. What do swine usually suffer from?

  4. Are the nutrient requirements of swine complicated?

  5. Are the grains high in calcium?

2.3. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the text:

1. The vitamin requirements of swine are met ... when they are on good pasture. 2. Swine are fed ... on grain. 3. They eat ... little roughage. 4. Swine grow more ... than cattle, horses, or sheep. 5. They suffer much more ... than the other classes of livestock from inadequate ra­tions.

2.4. Translate into Russian:

1. Both skim milk and buttermilk are excellent protein supplements to the grains in swine feeding, for these dairy by-products are rich in protein of the highest quality and they are also high in cal­cium and phosphorus. 2. In feeding skim milk, buttermilk, or whey to swine, it must be borne in mind that they are all very low in vitamin A and that they have but traces of vitamin D. 3. The daily requirements of the pig in cal­cium are large. 4. Any ration made up of only grain and grain by-products is very unsatisfactory. 5. A combination of corn, barley, oats, wheat middlings, and corn gluten meal furnishes protein of unsatisfactory quality for swine. 6. It is especially necessary to provide salt for swine fed grain and protein supplements that are largely of plant origin.

2.5. Read the text and say what types of diets are used in the feeding of swine and speak about nutrients required for swine:

Various classes of swine have particular nutrient requirements. In general, young pigs require greater dietary levels of most nutrients such as protein (lysine) than older pigs. As such, there are various diets on the market, or that can be mixed on the farm, that are suited for each class of swine. These diet types usually include the following: starter diet, grower-finisher diet, gestation diet, lactation diet, farrowing diet, gilt developer diet and boar diet.

Lysine content is important because swine like most non-ruminant animals, require specific levels of amino acids that make up protein. Some of these amino acids are essential and must be present in the diet for pigs to grow and perform well. A few essential amino acids tend to be limiting in typical swine diets. One essential amino acid, lysine, is usually the most limiting, or first limiting. This means that if a diet is formulated to supply the correct amount of lysine, then generally the levels of other essential amino acids (protein) will be adequate. Therefore, lysine is an important consideration when choosing the proper swine diet.

2.6. Translate into English:

1. Свиньи растут быстрее крупного рогатого скота, лошадей и овец. 2. Недостаток витаминов в рационе свиней вызывает различные заболевания. 3. Потребность свиней в фосфоре и кальции примерно одинакова. 4. Зерна злаковых содержат очень мало кальция и фосфора. 5. Пахта и сыворотка содержат очень мало витамина А и лишь следы витамина Д.

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