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Chapter 8

Ex. 1

to breach(a law)

нарушать (закон);

to misappropriate

незаконно присвоить, завладеть

to tip off

информировать о случившимся или предстоящем событии

rein

контроль

to give free rein to smth.

предоставить свободу действий

mileage

польза,выгода

a shenanigan

махинация

a ‘white-collar’ crime

преступление, совершаемое служащими

to follow hunches

следовать интуиции, предчувствию

pecuniary interest

денежный, финансовый интерес

insolvency

банкротство

an electoral roll

список избирателей

to canvass smth.

анализировать, обсуждать, дискутировать о чем-либо

a prime example

яркий, показательный пример

a gauge of public moods

способ оценки общественного мнения

as cocooned from the public as politicians

такой же закрытый от общественности, как политики

to joust with smb./smth.

соперничать с кем-либо/чем-либо

grassroots

широкие массы, простые люди

a diminution

уменьшение, спад, снижение

to do utmost

сделать всё возможное

to portray the government in a positive light

изображать правительство в выгодном свете

an aggrandizement

увеличение, расширение

to deflect criticism

противостоять критике

to head offcriticism

предотвращать критику

to turn the tables on smb.

выйти на кого-то, повернуть ситуацию на кого-то

out of thin air

из ниоткуда, из ничего

interminable

бесконечный, беспредельный

compliant

податливый, покладистый, уступчивый

savvy

сообразительный, толковый, смышленый

a sustenance

поддержка, помощь

a sound-bite

короткий отрывок, фраза из речи

tunnel vision

узкий кругозор, ограниченность, узость взглядов

aset piece

эпизод

abombshell

ошеломляющая новость, сногшибательное известие

off the cuff

без подготовки

a ghostwriter

фактический автор, тайно работающий на другое лицо

multi-faceted

многогранный

a blueprint

план, программа

to intimidate

пугать, запугивать, устрашать

a no-go

безвыходное положение, тупик

to win kudos

получить почёт, всеобщее признание и уважение

a retribution

наказание, расплата, кара

an exemption

освобождение

abysmal

глубокий, бездонный, неизмеримый

to lodge the Freedom of Information application

ссылаться на закон о свободе слова

to withhold information

утаивать, скрывать информацию

Exercise 3: 1. true [p.165]; 2. false [p. 166]; 3. false [p.166]; 4. false [p.168]; 5. true [p.168]; 6. true [p.170]; 7. false [p.172]; 8. false [p. 178].

Exercise 4: 1. diminution; 2. self-aggrandizement; 3. compliant; 4. sustenance; 5. retributive; 6. exempt; 7. abysmally; 8. insolvency.

Exercise 6: 1. off the cuff; 2. turned the tables on; 3. do its utmost; 4. tunnel vision; 5. are giving … free reins to; 6. sound-bites; 7. the ghostwriter; 8. to win kudos; 9. white-collar crimes; 10. no-go.

Exercise 7: 1.multi-faceted; 2. shenanigans; 3. breach; 4. pecuniary; 5. misappropriated; 6. jousted; 7. savvy; 8. bombshell.

Exercise 9: 1. follow hunches; 2. tipped off; 3. canvassed; 4. prime examples; 5. deflect; 6. head off; 7. lodged; 8. withhold; 9. intimidate; 10. interminable.

Exercise 10: (1) – 3; (2) – 5; (3) – 7; (4) – 2; (5) – 4; (6) – 6; (7) – 1.

Exercise 11: (1) – embodiment; (2) – indomitable; (3) – visionary; (4) – endowed; (5) – be attributed; (6) – made provision; (7) – public service; (8) – dynamic progression; (9) – an overseer advisory board; (10) – suspend; (11) – substituting; (12) – conducive; (13) – rendered; (14) – withhold any award; (15) – overrule the recommendations.

Exercise 12: 1. Reports on breaches of laws, robberies, misappropriation of property and funds, petty white-collar crimes and other illegal shenanigans are usually covered in a news bulletin. 2. Journalists are often tipped off about a perpetration of a crime ahead. 3. A major role in news search is played not only by visiting libraries, examination of state and federal handbooks, annual reports, register books, advertisements, archives, holding information on immigration, sessions of the court, insolvencies and dissolution of companies, but also by contact with grass-root readers. 4. Under the government of any country, state or city there are public relation practitioners, who are ready to do utmost to portray high-ranking figures and civil servants in a positive light. 5. A blueprint of performance considerably simplifies journalist’s work provided that a speaker doesn’t decide to change his theme and speak off the cuff. 6. Activists often run a risk of destroying their careers, meanwhile a journalist having taken an advantage of their services can win kudo. 7. All this data should be checked, most of the facts are suspected to have appeared out of thin air. 8. The all-encompassing presentation deflected all accusations against the would-be scientist of tunnel vision. 9. Tax exemption, an increase in social benefits served as a true state aid for low-income families. 10. The other part of the seminar was dedicated to canvassing the role of vested interests in the context of interethnic relations and social indentity.

Chapter 9

Ex.2

Fraught with legal danger; strive for accuracy; to divulge the identity of the source; to vouch for; to build rapport; divisive issues; one common ploy of politicians; to canvass public statements; evasive interviewee; to gnaw at confidence; to ignore barbs; newsworthy individuals; to be more lenient to; to sidetrack to other issues/ subjects; to draw on emotion; consensual interview; to have a knack for asking questions; a sound bite; to skew; to slant; to piggyback on popular issues; defamatory questions; innocuous topic; to center on; to bar from doing something; to blend into any crowd; to keep track of; an even-handed tone; a well-timed telephone call, to suppress any mention.

Ex. 6

  1. Every journalist must strive for accuracy, fairness and disclosure of all essential facts.

  2. Journalists should always consider a source’s track record: Have they been reliable? Will others vouch for them?

  3. Journalists might be reluctant to lose reliable sources’ goodwill by sticking to formalities.

  4. For the source, anonymity can be a golden opportunity to ‘get even’ with an enemy while not having to take public responsibility for comments.

  5. It can be difficult to keep track of who has said what.

  6. This method can be used with media advisers who fob off general questions.

  7. If the reporter picks up quickly on evasion, the interviewee may realize the tactic is pointless.

  8. This can gnaw at the confidence of inexperienced reporters.

  9. The expectation is that a journalist will blend into almost any crowd.

  10. You mean you knew all the time and never let on?

  11. Television interviews can border on the theatrical.

  12. I do not know why we should be barred from trading to those places.

  13. Take the other person fully into account, then remember and make sense of what that person heard and saw.

Ex. 8

1.A 2. B 3. D 4. B 5. A 6. C 7. D 8. B

Ex. 9

1. hindered 2. blocked 3. intervene 4. obstructed 5. barred 6. impeding 7. intervene 8. barred 9. obstruct 10. hinders

Ex. 12

1 false 2 false 3 true 4 true 5 false 6 true 7 false 8 false

Ex. 15

The interview is the most effective news-gathering tool but not necessarily the most trustworthy. Answers can differ depending on who is asking the questions and in what way. Often people will feel under no obligation to answer questions, especially when they have something to hide, at other times they are genuinely fearful of the public spotlight. They will lie, withhold the truth, or tell a portion of the truth. A journalist should develop his own ‘lie detector’ tests by asking difficult and ambivalent questions to which he already knows the answers. Quite often A journalist stumble upon more difficult situations when the interview takes on an emotional dimension. Sometimes people will move heaven and earth to get their name in the newspaper, while others are just as forceful in trying to suppress any mention. A journalist is neither a friend nor a foe. He must not reach personal conclusions; he should also avoid expressing his opinion. He should feel the atmosphere and the interlocutor and be able to probe before asking difficult questions. You should be wary of recording devices. Some people become hostile having felt that their voice is being recorded. Thus even the most eloquent person can become tongue-tied. In this case everything depends on the journalist: he can start a small talk to disarm an angry interviewee by an observation or a joke. This is not the complete list of obstacles a journalist can com across while interviewing however everything depends on his skills and personal qualities.

Chapter 10

Ex. 3

To relish doing smth; to clear a hurdle; to undergo a change; gratifying; vitriol; mind-numbing; to loom; formidable; to dole out; have smb on; a shelf life; to linger on; a cursory glance; to peruse; crucial; to confer with; to be under the umbrella; well-honed; have a foot in both camps; to spike; a rookie; a slick writer; to collate; against a backdrop of; a constraint; to be akin to; fulcrum

Ex. 10

1. fulcrum 2. akin 3. habitat 4. spin doctor 5 mixed blessing 6 slick 7 well-honed 8 have a foot in both camps 9. liaises with 10.confer with

Ex. 13

1 extricate itself 2 expunge 3 excluded 4 extricate 5 expunge

Ex. 15

1 scanned 2 scrutinized 3 caught a glimpse 4 caught sight 5 inspect 6 cast a cursory glance 7 peer 8 scrutinize

Ex. 17

1. My partner and I, we work like hell. We expect everybody else to do the same. Sink or swim!

2. The buck stops right here at the White House.

3. ‘See here,’ he exclaimed suddenly, looking sharply at the musician and deciding to take the bull by the horns, ‘you are in a quandary the same as I am, if you only stop to think.’

4. I loved even your so very British talent for hiding your head in the sand when you can no longer avoid the ugliness before your eyes.

5. I'm generally in favour of what you propose, but not enough to stand up and be counted.

6. He has had to shoulder the responsibility of his father's mistakes.

7. He's very clever at passing the buck to someone else.

8. Sort out all your problems once and for all!

Ex. 19

The nature of newspapers has undergone enormous changes over the last period of time. The move to online news has forced to shift focus from bare facts to their analysis and discussion. Reporting has started to appeal to a broader audience. It may lead to the dumbing down of journalism in general. However , according to many experts, the problem of contemporary journalism is that it heavily influenced by advertising interests of media companies. Although really good journalists can strike a balance. Now journalism and PR are uneasy bedfellows. PR practitioners outnumber journalists. Many journalists turn into PR agents.Clever men hire public relations people to plant stories then pay to the lawyers and then feed them to the others. Many PR agents( former journalists) know how to manage, cajole and manipulate the media because they are from the media. Therefore there arise ethical and other problems that may hinder progress. Sometimes we can talk about understaffing although pr specialists have invisible desks in newsrooms. They reside in lifestyle sections. Here they produce thinly disguised advertorial that will later disrupt the reputation.

Chapter 11

Ex. 2

Watchdog ;hot tip; tip-off; to diffuse; a rich trove of information; divulge; intrepid adventurer; sought-after duty; to fall through; brawl; to embitter public debate; diehard; of no avail; warring factions; to inflame a situation; to insulate oneself; a sounding board; make a nuisance of oneself;

Ex. 6

1. Roads 2. Plants 3. Flowers 4. The centre 5.light 6. up in the air 7. Playing cards 8. The theatre

Ex 8

(1) 1. Foolhardy 2. adventurous 3. foolhardy 4. reckless 5. intrepid

(2) 1. enhance 2. intensifying 3. heightened 4. Aggravate 5. intensified

(3) 1. disclosed 2. divulge 3. betray 4. revealed 5. divulge

Ex 11

To be successful, a journalist must develop a genuine interest in public policy. Their interests need to span everything from education, politics, and health to sports, business, and music. All knowledge does not come from books and academic circles. If you are determined to become a journalist, you must be alert to the world around you. You must read newspapers and magazines which encapsulate the week’s news events. It is also important to keep abreast of news bulletins. Apart from mundane research tools there are confidential contacts that you must obtain. Networking with a variety of sources is a reporter’s lifeline. Some sources will provide e telephone number on the proviso it is not shared with other journalists. It is of utmost importance to forge strong relationship with your informers and add new contacts to your contact book. Being neat and organized will help you a lot: no journalist wants to be fumbling through a telephone book or disorganized scraps of paper looking for an elusive telephone number. Working in this field you are exposed t stress. Emotions are contagious therefore try to insulate yourself from negative feelings. Sometimes you will be “the honest broker” between warring factions. In this case try not to inflame the situation. Time management is the most important thing. You can spend hours researching and formulating questions to no avail. Don’t panic, Try prioritizing to ease the stress.

Chapter 12

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