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5. Read the article and answer the questions (1-7).

1. In the first paragraph, the writer mentions "hi-tech diagnostic equipment" in order to

  1. emphasise the simplicity of the stethoscope.

  2. stress the usefulness of the stethoscope.

  3. show the symbolic role of the stethoscope.

  4. explain why doctors use the stethoscope.

2. In the past, lack of adequate diagnostic equipment meant that

  1. many patients died unnecessarily from heart disease.

  2. cause of illness was often discovered only after death.

  3. diagnosis was based solely on subjective hypothesis.

  4. many contagious diseases were never detected.

3. The advent of the stethoscope meant doctors

A were less likely to catch something from patients.

B could distance themselves from those under their care.

C were facilitated in detecting contagious illnesses.

D could now hear a patient's heart beating.

4. How many versions of the stethoscope did Laennec devise?

A one

B two

C more than two

D more than three

5. The modern stethoscope

A is meticulously crafted.

B closely resembles the original.

C consists of two moveable parts.

D was developed by an American.

6. Although simple in design, Laennec's invention

A forced doctors to use reason with their patients.

B brought about great change in medical procedure.

C caused a revolution in philosophical thought.

D has yet to be bettered as a diagnostic tool.

7. The last sentence of the article implies that

A medicine would not have been a science if the stethoscope hadn't been invented.

B Laennec was one of the few 18th-century doctors who practiced medicine scientifically.

C without Laennec, medicine might have progressed at a much slower pace.

D the invention of the stethoscope helped medical practice become more systematic.

6. Answer the following questions.

  1. What exactly does the underlined phrase 'such transmission' describe?

  2. What disadvantages of the first stethoscope were soon corrected?

  3. Explain in your own words what the writer means by the underlined phrase 'simply rode on the wave of change'.

7. a. Look at the words/phrases in bold and try to explain them.

b. Find a synonym for each of the highlighted words.

c. Which of the words in the article come from a language other than English? Which words are the same in your language?

8. The invention of the stethoscope came from Laennec's individual genius and inspiration rather than from scientific teamwork. Some people believe that most scientific breakthroughs occur in this way. What do you think? Do you know how the following breakthroughs were achieved?

  • the development of the theory of gravity by Isaac Newton

  • the discovery of the properties of radioactivity by Pierre and Marie Curie and A.H. Becquerel

Language Focus

Physical Ailments

1. Check your understanding of the words in this vocabulary bank, then fill in the gaps in the sentences that follow.

ache • clot • concussion • condition • cramp• deficiency • discomfort • disorder • exhaustion• fractured • infection • inflammation • injury

1. The patient complained about a constant dull in ______ his back.

2. She had severe ________ in her right leg while swimming and had to be rescued by lifeguards.

3. The face cream was withdrawn from the market after several complaints of painful skin _____.

4. In a three-hour operation, doctors removed a _____ from one of the patient's main arteries.

5. Jim hasn't broken his ankle, it's only a bad _____.

6. The recurrence of an old knee _____ kept Roger out of football for three months.

7. After five days stranded on the mountain, the climbers were found suffering from _____.

8. He escaped a very serious car crash with only a couple of _____ ribs.

9. Even a small blow to the head can result in _____.

10. If you eat nothing but junk food you'll end up with a serious vitamin ____.

11. All cuts should be treated with antiseptic to prevent ____.

12. If the _____ has not healed in a week's time or if there is any swelling or _____ around it, see your doctor.

13. After the operation, you will suffer a little ____, but no pain.

14. Anorexia is an eating _____ which is common in teenagers.

15. He suffers from a rare ______ which causes his skin to blister every time he goes out in the sun.

16. His weak chest means he has a _____ to ailments such as bronchitis.

shoulder blade

2. Find the odd one out, then briefly explain why it doesn't fit in its group. Use a dictionary if necessary.

brain – eardrum – jaw –

'Shoulder blade' is the odd one out because all others refer to parts of the head.

  1. prevent - treat - cure - heal

  2. finger - toe - thumb - knuckle

  3. gasp -pant - faint - wheeze

  4. muscle- bone - nerve - eyelash

  5. surgery- ward - stretcher - lab

  6. slide -beaker - powder - vial

  7. knee - elbow - thigh - calf

  8. surgeon - consultant - specialist – orderly

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