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MODULE 3

  • Diseases and Health Problems

  • A Visit to the Doctor

  • Keping Fit. Promoting Healthy Way of Life

  • Modern Medical Science

  • Leisure and Sports

Discussion

1. Read the following quotation and discuss it.

Health is above wealth.

It is a sum of money in the bank, which will support you, economically spent. But you spend foolishly and draw on the principal. This diminishes the income, and you draw larger and larger drafts until you become bankrupt. Overeating , overworking, every imprudence is a draft on life which health cashes and charges at a thousand percent interest. Every abuse of health hastens death!

F.G.Welch

  1. Here is a list of controversial statements about medical care.

For each one, discuss the advantages and disadvantages. Think also what the consequences of the idea would be.

The State should pay for all medical care. There should be no private medical care.

Heart transplants should be stopped. They are rarely successful, and the money could be better spent on other things.

The tax on cigarettes should be increased to pay for the health care needed by smokers.

Health care should be reduced for people over 65.

People who are very ill should have the right to decide if they want to die.

Doctors should always give patients all the information about their illness and chances of recovery.

Diseases and Health Problems

  1. What are your symptoms? Study the material that follows to enlarge your vocabulary.

Rash bruise lump spots a black eye

I've got a cold / a cough / a sore throat / a temperature / a stomach ache / chest pains/ earache / a pain in my side / a rash on my chest / spots / a bruise on my leg / a black eye / a lump on my arm / indigestion / diarrhoea / painful joints / blisters / sunburn.

I feel sick / dizzy / breathless / shivery / faint / particularly bad at night.

I am depressed / constipated / tired all the time.

I've lost my appetite / voice; I can't sleep, my nose itches and my leg hurts.

What do doctors do?

They take your temperature, listen to your chest, look in your ears, examine you, take your blood pressure, ask you some questions and weigh and measure you before sending you to the hospital for further tests.

What's the diagnosis?

You've got flu / chickenpox / mumps / pneumonia / rheumatism / an ulcer / a virus / a bug something that's going round.

You've broken your wrist and sprained / dislocated your ankle. You're pregnant / a hypochondriac. He died of lung cancer / a heart attack / a brain haemorrhage / AIDS.

What does the doctor prescribe?

Take one three times a day after meals.

Take a teaspoonful last thing at night.

Rub a little on before going to bed each night.

We'll get the nurse to put a bandage on.

You'll need to have some injections before you go.

I'll ask the surgeon when he can fit you in for an operation.

You'll have to have your leg put in plaster.

I think you should have total bed rest for a week.

What might the doctor ask you?

What would you say if the doctor asked you the following questions?

Do you have health insurance? Have you ever had any operations?

Are you taking any medication? Are you allergic to anything?

  1. Match the diseases with their symptoms.

1. flu

swollen glands in front of ear, earache or pain on eating

2. pneumonia

burning pain in abdomen, pain or nausea after eating

3. rheumatism

rash starting on body, slightly raised temperature

4. chickenpox

dry cough, high fever, chest pain, rapid breathing

5. mumps

headache, aching muscles, fever, cough, sneezing

6. an ulcer

swollen, painful joints, stiffness, limited movement

  1. What does the doctor or nurse use the following things for?

Example: stethoscope for listening to a patient's chest.

1 thermometer

2 scales

3 tape measure

4 scalpel

  1. Look at the above mentioned statements. Which do you think the doctor said to each of the following patients?

1. Anne with bad sunburn.

5. Jo who's broken her leg.

2. John who's off to the Tropics.

6. Paul with flu.

3. Liz with a bad cough.

7. Sam who needs his appendix out.

4. Rose suffering from exhaustion.

8. Alf who's sprained his wrist.

  1. Complete the following table.

noun

adjective

verb

…………………………

breathless

…………………………

…………………………

faint

…………………………

…………………………

shivery

…………………………

…………………………

dislocated

…………………………

ache

treatment

……………………………………………………

……………………………………………………

…………………………

swollen

…………………………

  1. What medical problems might you have if...

1. you wear shoes that rub?

7. you eat too fast?

2. you smoke a lot?

8. you play football?

3. you go skiing?

9. you stay too long in the sun?

4. you eat food you're allergic to?

10. you run unusually fast for a bus?

5. you eat food that is bad?

11. a mosquito bites you?

6. you get wet on a cold day?

12. you think you're ill all the time?

  1. Think of some of the illnesses you (or members of your family or friends) have had. What were the symptoms and what did the doctor prescribe?

Follow-up: Look at the health page of a magazine or newspaper. Make a note of any new vocabulary on the theme that you find there. Look in your medicine cabinet at home, at or work. Can you name everything that you find there?

Health: illness and disease

A. Common problems

She's sneezing.

She's coughing.

She's got a

a sore throat.

She's blowing her nose

She's got a temperature.

What's the matter?

I've got a cold

I've got flu (U) (more serious than a cold)

I've got hay fever (U)

How do you know? (the symptoms)

a sore throat, sneezing, a cough

symptoms for a cold + aching muscles and a temperature, e.g. 39.5

sneezing, runny nose, sore eyes

Cause of illness

a virus

a virus

allergic reaction to

pollen from grass

often food, or a virus

many e.g. food, alcohol

too much alcohol

I've got diarrhoea (U)

I feel sick

I've got a hangover

I keep going to the toilet

I want to vomit (= be sick)

headache, feeling sick

Note: For these illnesses, you can either buy something from the chemist, or go to your doctor, who may give you a prescription (= a piece of paper with an order for some medicine) that you get from the chemist.

B. Aches and pains

Nouns: We only use ache with the following: I've got toothache (U), a stomach-ache, backache (U), earache (U) and a headache. For other parts of the body we use pain, e.g. I woke up in the night with a terrible pain in my chest.

Verbs: You can use ache for some things, e.g. my back aches; but hurt is more common to describe real pain, and it can be used with or without a direct object:

She hurt her foot when she jumped off the bus and fell over, (also injured here) or

She hurt herself when she jumped off the bus and fell over.

I hit my leg against the table and it really hurts. (= gives me a terrible pain)

Adjectives: The only common adjective is painful (≠ painless):

I had an injection yesterday and it was very painful.

A: Did it hurt when you had your filling? (= when the dentist fills a hole/cavity in the tooth) .

B: No, it was painless

C. Serious illnesses

Doctors believe smoking is the major cause of lung cancer.

He had a heart attack and died almost immediately.

Hepatitis is a liver disease.

Asthma (chest illness causing breathing problems) has become more common.

Note: Illness and disease are often used in the same way, but disease is used for a serious condition caused by an infection e.g. a liver disease. Illness is a more general word.

  1. Write down the main symptom or symptoms for these conditions.

  1. a cold:………………………………………………………………

  2. flu:………………………………………………………………….

  3. hay fever:…………………………………………………………..

  4. a hangover:…………………………………………………………

  5. diarrhoea:…………………………………………………………..

  6. asthma:……………………………………………………………..

  1. Look at the underlined letters in these pairs of words. Is the

pronunciation the same or different? Look at the examples first.

Examples: ache pain same

constipated stomach different

1 disease diarrhoea 4 virus illness

2 chemist ache 5 flu muscle

3 hurt allergic 6 cough enough

  1. Look at the pictures and write what happened in the space below. Use the active vocabulary.

I had …………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Fill the gaps with a suitable word.

  1. I hit my hand on the desk and it really …………… .

  2. They say she died of a heart …………… .

  3. She had some apples that weren't ready to eat and now she's got stomache- ………….. .

  4. I've got this terrible ………….. in my neck from sleeping in the wrong position.

  5. He died of ………… cancer even though he never smoked a cigarette in his life.

  6. I went to the doctor, and she gave me a …………. for some tablets.

  7. Pollution makes her ………….. worse and it's difficult for her to breathe.

  8. There are different forms of hepatitis; one is a more serious ………… than the other.

  9. I hurt ………….. when I fell off that chair.

  10. My back …………. from sitting at that computer all day.

  1. Have you had any aches and pains recently? Make a list of the illnesses you have had. Are there any other illnesses you have had or still have? If so, find the name for it/them in English.

  1. Translate the following phrasal verbs and verb-preposition collocations for health and illness

I'm fighting off a cold at the moment. (trying to get rid of).

Marge isn't in today; she's gone down with flu. (has caught, usually a non-serious illness).

I won't be going today. I've come down with a dreadful cold. (with I we say come down not go down)

I had a virus last week, but I got over it quite quickly. (got better/recovered)

My sister's recovering from a major operation. (getting better: used for more serious illnesses)

Harry suffers from hay fever and sneezes a lot if he is near grass or flowers. (used for more long-term problems)

He died of / from lung cancer. (Not: He died with lung cancer.)

14. Read the text below and find words in the text which mean

the following:

1. doctor who looks after people's general health: GP means general practitioner

2. choose private healthcare

3. large centre with several doctors and kinds of services

4. general expression for all of the services offered by hospitals, clinics, dentists, opticians, etc.

5. tax paid by most adults which covers the costs of healthcare for everyone

6. British name for the service that covers hospitals, clinics, dentists, etc

7. charge for the medication the doctor prescribes, which you pay at a pharmacy

8. small centre with just two or three doctors

“In Britain, healthcare is paid for through taxes and national insurance payments taken directly from wages and salaries. The government decides how much will be spent on the National Health Service, but a lot of people feel they do not spend enough. Hospital treatment and visits to a family doctor (or GP) at a surgery or clinic are free, but there is a prescription charge. Dentists and opticians charge fees. Private healthcare is available and a large number of insurance schemes exist to enable people to 'go private'.

15. Translate into English:

лікуватись приватно; державне страхування; плата за прописані ліки; державна служба охорони здоров’я; аптека, ліки; сімейний лікар.

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