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The alimentary tract

The alimentary tract is a musculomembraneous canal about 8.5 meters in length. It _ from the oral cavity to the anus. It consists of the mouth, pharynx, _, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. The liver with gallbladder and _ are the large glands of the alimentary tract.

The first division of the alimentary tract is formed by the mouth. Important structures of the mouth are the _ and the tongue, which is the organ of taste. The soft and hard _ and the salivary glands are also in the oral cavity.

From the mouth food passes through the _ to the esophagus and then to the stomach.

The stomach is a dilated portion of the alimentary canal. It is in the upper part of the abdomen under the diaphragm. It measures about 21-25 cm in length.

The small intestine is a thin-walled muscular tube about 6.5 meters long. It is located in the lower and central parts of the _ and pelvic cavities. The small intestine is composed of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The large intestine is about 1.5 meters long. It is divided into caecum, _ , and rectum.

The liver is the largest _ in the human body. It is in the right upper part of the abdominal cavity under the diaphragm. The gallbladder is a hollow _ lying on the lower surface of the liver. The pancreas is a long thin gland lying under and behind the stomach.

palates; esophagus; gland; pharynx; teeth; colon; pancreas; extends; abdominal; sac.

Ex. 23. Answer the following questions:

What organ or the part of the digestive tract is located:

1. in the lower and central portions of the abdominal and pelvic cavities? 2. in the right upper part of the abdominal cavity under the diaphragm? 3. in the abdominal cavity under and behind the stomach? 4. within the abdominal cavity on the lower surface of the liver?

Ex. 24. Speak on the structure and functions of the digestive system. The following expressions may be helpful:

Digestive system consists of … .

Important structures of … are … .

The first/second/last segment of alimentary canal is … .

Food passes through … to … .

Small/Large intestine is divided into/includes/consists of … .

The main function of … is to … .

Ex. 25. Read and reproduce the following dialogue:

At the gastroenterologist’s

Gastroenterologist: What do you complain of?

Patient: I often have a severe pain in my abdomen.

G. : In what part of abdomen do you feel the pain?

P.: In the upper part. Here it is.

G. : What is the character of the pain? Is your pain acute or dull?

P.: It is dull. But sometimes I have colics in my stomach.

G.: Is your pain constant or periodic?

P.: I feel it just after meals.

G.: Do you take any medicines when you feel the pain?

P.: Yes, I do. I take some medicines and my pain disappears.

G.: When did the abdominal pain appear? Where does the pain radiate to?

P.: The pain appeared some months ago. It often radiates to the back.

G.: Do you have a feeling of heaviness?

P.: Yes, I do.

G.: What else troubles you?

P.: Sometimes I have nausea or vomiting.

G.: Do you obtain relief after vomiting?

P.: Yes, I do.

G.: Now undress, please. I'll examine you. Show me your tongue, please. Your tongue is thickly coated. Lie down on the couch. I'll palpate your abdomen. The abdomen is symmetrically enlarged. Show me where the pain is. Is it painful when I press here?

P.: Yes, it is.

G.: That's all. Dress yourself and sit down here. Listen to me attentively. First you have to make roentgenography of your abdomen and your gastric juice analysis. Then come to me and I'll prescribe you the treatment. Keep to a diet. Don't eat sour and salt meals. Avoid the physical exertion and emotional overstrain.

P.: Thank you. I'll fulfill all your administrations.

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