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39 Read the text.

Text 5F

Scientific and Technological Progress

It's difficult to overestimate the role of science and technology in our life. They accelerate the development of civilization and help us in our co-operation with nature. Scientists investigate the laws of the universe, discover the secrets of nature, and apply their knowledge in practice improving the life of people.

Let's compare our life nowadays with the life of people at the beginning of the 20th century. It has changed beyond recognition. Our ancestors hadn't the slightest idea of the trivial things created by the scientific progress that we use in our every day life. I mean refrigerators, TV sets, computers, microwave ovens, radio telephones, what not. They would seem miracle to them that made our life easy, comfortable and pleasant. On the other hand, the great inventions of the beginning of the 20th century, I mean radio, aeroplanes, combustion and jet engines have become usual things and we can't imagine our life without them. A century is a long period for scientific and technological progress, as it's rather rapid. Millions of investigations, the endless number of outstanding discoveries have been made. Our century has had several names that were connected with a certain era in science and technology. At first it was called the atomic age due to the discovery of the splitting of the atom. Then it became the age of the conquest of space when for the first time in the history of mankind a man overcame the gravity and entered the Universe. And now we live in the information era when the computer network embraces the globe and connects not only the countries and space stations but a lot of people all over the world. All these things prove the power and the greatest progressive role of science in our life.

But every medal has its reverse. And the rapid scientific progress has aroused a number of problems that are a matter of our great concern. These are ecological problems, the safety of nuclear power stations, the nuclear war threat, and the responsibility of a scientist.

But still we are grateful to the outstanding men of the past and the present who have courage and patience to disclose the secrets of the Universe.

40 Read the text.

Text 5G

Calling All Stars: Interview Broadcast into the

Universe

(to be done in class)

"Calling all stars" is a radio message intercepted from outer space. It says, "Calling all stars, calling all stars. If there are any minds in the Universe capable of receiving this message, please respond. This is Cybernetica speaking. This is the first message broadcast to the Universe in all directions.

We observed on the Earth flashes which we have identified as uranium explosions, and we asked Mind 59, one of our great physicists, to comment on it. He agreed to give us an interview which is now being broadcast.

Interviewer: Mr. Mind 59, what do you think about the uranium explosions observed on the Earth?

Mind 59: Well, the observations of the uranium explosions would be very puzzling but not necessarily alarming. They become actually alarming if we assume the existence of some organisms on the Earth that may have a mind unlike our own and much inferior to it. It may work very much slower and in an unreliable manner.

Interviewer: And what is the difference between the organisms of Cybernetica and those that may be assumed to exist on the Earth?

Mind 59: Our mind is housed in a steel casing containing a thousand billion electrical circuits and they are guided by laws of reason, whereas the minds on the Earth may be of low grade and they could not be expected to act reasonably.

Interviewer: Do you think the minds on the Earth are capable of grasping the physical laws governing the nucleus of the atom?

Mind 59: No doubt, they may be, although in an empirical manner and they might very well have, for purposes unknown, separated Uranium 235 from natural uranium and detonated samples of it.

Interviewer: If this were really so, where would the danger lie?

Mind 59: Oh, I should have told you this in the first place. If our assumption is correct the primitive minds of the Earth must have cooperated for such an enterprise as separating Uranium 235. And if they don't use reason when putting their discovery to use they may endanger not only their own society but ours as well.

Interviewer: Thank you very much for your comments which should help us handle the situation. And now to all who may be listening to us –

If there are within our galaxy any minds similar to ours, who are capable of receiving this message and have knowledge of the existence of organisms on the Earth, please respond. Please respond".

41 You are an invention expert. You've received a patent specification of a new bearing from Russia. Check if the bearing in question is similar to that of the INA Bearing Co., Inc. Fill in the chart below:

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