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Ingredients:

1 medium pineapple

500g apples

1 vanilla stick (or vanilla sugar)

50ml apple vodka

100 g sherry vinegar

130g butter

20g cinnamon sticks

200ml fresh pineapple juice

200g sugar

Day l:

Dice pineapples and apples. Heat 30g of the butter in a trying pan, add the fruit and two thirds of the sugar. Fry for 10 or 15 minutes, then add vodka, vinegar, vanilla and cinnamon. Stew until the mixture has a syrup-like consistency. Set aside and let it cool.

To make the mould:

Slice the apple into really tiny slices. Line one teacup-sized mould with them, per person. Then fill with the cooked fruit and chill in the fridge for 24 hours.

Day 2:

The sauce:

In the heated frying pan stew the pineapple juice with 1/3 sugar, and vanilla. Cook until very thick, and add l0g butter.

To serve:

Take the unit moulds out of the fridge. Put them in an oven­proof dish and cook for 10-15 minutes in an oven which has been preheated to 300 C. Then place the moulds on a large plate, decorated with powdered sugar. Top with a dollop of soft butter or cream. Add the hot sauce and serve immediately. An accompaniment of blackberries and ice cream will make the dish even more special.

Vocabulary notes

pineapple

cinnamon

mould

tiny slices

dollop

blackberries

chill (v)

— ананас

— кориця

— формочка

— маленькі шматочки

— гірка (жменя)

— ожина

— охолоджувати

PART II

Unit 1

Text

FAST FOOD: A MODERN ASPECT OF THE CATERING TRADE

Fast Food covers quite a wide range of products and it is difficult to outline its limits. To the typical Counter Service Fast Food outlets whether hamburger-based, chicken-based, pancake-based or donut-based, can be added pizza restaurants, snack-bars and the old-established fish-and-chips shops in the case of Great Britain. They mostly serve a «limited menu»; for instance a McDonald's place only offer you a "burger" accompanied by a milkshake -chocolate or strawberry-flavoured - or a Coke. If you rather fancy chicken, you will turn to a Kentucky Fried Chicken place. Some chains, such as Burger King, are trying a diversified approach and sell breakfast, specialty sandwiches, dinner baskets, salad and dessert. In all cases Fast Food implies efficient, speedy service and a high sales volume.

The fast food industry is a typical U.S. development McDonald's alone is said to command a 6% share of all eating-out sales there. Still, fast food is developing very fast in other countries as well, especially in Western Europe, so this modem form of catering cannot be ignored.

For the average European, the volume of food served across Fast

Food counters in the USA defies the imagination. Kentucky Fried Chicken claim over 1.5 million meals a day McDonald's serve their hamburgers by the billion and are now operating some 40, 000 outlets all over the world. Burger King has just opened Europe's biggest fast food establishment on the Champs Elysees. To be fair, it should be mentioned that France is resisting fast food advance better than Britain or Germany so far.

What is the secret behind US-style fast food?

Fast food is cheap or rather inexpensive, so it attracts the young and families with children who can do away with household chores and eat out several times a week and without stretching their budget.

It is fast, of course. One does not have to wait for service or go through the agonies of selecting from an outsize unfamiliar menu. Thus many clients of the European fast food industry are students or office workers who cannot resist the short, cheap, no-surprise fast food lunch.

Fast food outlets are uniform. One is not going to enjoy the greatest gourmet experience of one's life at the next Burger King or International House of Pancakes, but one will eat safe, reliable, no-problem food.

Fast food places are aggressively clean, and every group insists on very strict hygiene. For instance, any hamburger, which has not been sold within ten minutes, MUST be discarded and thrown away, and the house inspectors see to it. McDonald's impose stringent rules for the purchase of hamburger meat - maximum fat content: 18.9% - and have their French fries processed and fried by the trillion at their central plant in Idaho. K.F.C. follow similar lines in their seven productions and processing plants.

Fast food restaurants are informal. There is no need to dress up there. Jeans and tennis shoes are the usual wear - all generations meet for a quick, inexpensive meal.

Actually fast food restaurants are run along strict lines with definite aims in advertising and marketing, children and young people being obvious objectives. Standardisation and quality control of the raw materials make for low costs and consistency of quality in products. Thus, if McDonald's foreign outlets buy their meat locally, every hamburger must conform to precise specifications as to size, weight, fat content, and will be cooked on specific stainless steel grills officially tested and approved in the USA.

The establishments set up obeys carefully conducted time and motion studies. The decor is always the same, a reassuring fact, the brightly-coloured uniforms of the servers and busboys, the tags they wear with their names, all these details go toward creating an energetic, bustling atmosphere where young people feel at home.

One can also safely consider that the pressure of industrialisation and the pinch of the economic crisis partly account for the success of fast food.

Notes

outlet

diversify

imply

share

defy the imagination

resist

attract

strict hygiene

discord

impose stringent rules

— підприємництво

— урізноманітнити

— мати на увазі

— частка

— не можна уявити

— протистояти, вимовляти

— приваблювати

— сувора гігієна

— вилучати з меню

— дотримуватися суворих правил

Ex. 1. Give answers to the following questions:

1. Can you suggest some sort of definition of fast food? What does the word automatically imply?

2. Can you have red wine with your hamburger? Why ?

3. Are you surprised that fast food should be a typically American development?

4. Can you list the assets of fast food?

5. Which of these assets appears most important to you? Give your reasons.

6. Have you been to a fast food place? What was your motivation then? What do you think could be done to stop the invasion?

Ex. 2. Give your opinion of this text. What problems are raised in this text?

Ex. 3. Retell the text

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