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Методические указания к контрольной работе № 2

Для того, чтобы правильно выполнить контрольную работу № 2, необходимо повторить материал по фонетике и словообразованию, а также проработать следующий материал по грамматике:

  1. Страдательный залог (Passive Voice) Present, Past, Future (Simple).

  2. Времена группы Continuous: Present, Past, Future Continuous (Active, Passive).

  3. Времена группы Prefect: Present, Past, Future Perfect (Active, Passive).

  4. Неопределенные местоимения some, any, no и их производные.

Для выполнения контрольной работы и овладения грамматическим материалом необходимо выполнить грамматические упражнения данного пособия.

К экзамену

Необходимо повторить весь грамматический материал контрольной работы № 2. Уметь читать и переводить тексты данного учебного пособия.

К экзамену допускаются студенты, сдавшие зачет за первый курс, получившие зачет по контрольным работам.

Тренировочная контрольная работа № 2

  1. Выпишите из текста все слова с согласной "c" в две колонки: в одну пишите слова, где согласная "c " читается как [s], в другую – как [k]. Дайте их транскрипцию.

  2. Выпишите из первого абзаца текста все глаголы в форме Infinitive, рядом дайте их соответствующую форму Participle II (III-я форма глагола)

  3. Выпишите из первого абзаца текста предложения в Passive Voice и переведите их на русский язык.

  4. Поставьте эти предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную форму.

  5. Выпишите из второй части текста предложения, где сказуемое стоит в одной из форм Perfect Tenses. Подчеркните данное сказуемое и переведите предложения на русский язык.

  6. Выпишите из последнего абзаца текста все глаголы; рядом дайте их начальную форму (Infinitive), образуйте Participle I (IV форма глагола).

Образец: were – be – being

  1. Поставьте следующие предложения в отрицательную и вопросительную форму:

  1. I am reading a book now.

  2. He is doing his home-work.

  3. I am closing the door.

  4. She is looking at me.

  5. They are coming in.

  1. Ответьте на вопросы и переведите ответы на русский язык.

  1. What are you doing now?

  2. Are reading now?

  3. What are you reading?

  4. Is your friend reading?

  5. What is he (she) doing now?

  1. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных местоимений.

  1. There's somebody in the room.

  2. There's nobody in the room.

  3. There's something on the table.

  4. There's nothing on the table.

  5. Has he bought anything for you

  1. Поставьте предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную форму, обращая внимание на правильное употребление неопределенных местоимений.

  1. There is something interesting in this magazine.

  2. He has invited somebody to dinner.

  1. Выпишите из текста существительные с суффиксами -ment, -ity, -tion и дайте их перевод.

  2. Прочитайте и переведите устно весь текст, письменно переведите первый и последний абзацы текста.

Text

The Development of the English Language

Several Saxon dialects were spoken in Britain a thousand years ago. When the country was converted to Christianity, Latin was introduced by the Church as the language of education. In the eleventh century, French dialects were brought from France by the new ruling class. The English language was developed considerably over the next 300 years and by 1383, English was the language which was used in the schools.

From the history of the English language

In the year 43 of our era the Romans came to Britain. This was not the first time the Romans tried to conquer the British Isles. About a hundred years earlier, the Roman army under Julius Caesar had landed in the same place but the inhabitants of Britain drew them out. This time by the year 45 the Romans had conquered the whole of Britain.

Long straight roads were built to connect distant regions of the county with the places where the Romans camped. These roads were very important for the Romans

because it was often necessary for them to move quickly from one place to another to suppress the people's uprising. Later on such cities and towns as London, Colchester, Winchester, Doncaster and other (the words "chester", "caster" are from the Latin word "castra" – a camp) took place of the Roman camps.

Words and expressions

  1. bring (brought, brought) v

приносить

  1. century n

век, столетие

  1. combine v

сочетать

  1. connect v

соединить

  1. conquer v

завоёвывать

  1. develop v

развивать

  1. development n

развитие

  1. education n

образование

  1. enrich v

обогатить

  1. foreign a

иностранный

  1. language n

язык

  1. necessary a

необходимый

  1. next a

следующий

  1. road n

дорога

  1. rule v

править

  1. speak (spoke, spoken) v

разговаривать

  1. try v

пытаться

  1. use v

применять, использовать

  1. word n

слово

ADDITIONAL TEXTS

Text 1

Saint-Petersburg Law Academy

Saint-Petersburg Law Academy is one of the biggest higher educational institutions. It was founded in 1998.

The Academy trains highly qualified specialists for different fields. The term of training is 5 years. After graduation from the Academy the students get a diploma of a lawyer. The graduates can work as a judge at the court, a procurator at the Procurator's Office, an investigator in militia.

The main aim of teaching at the Academy is to develop professional knowledge and job performing ability. To become an expert of law students must get good knowledge of such sciences as: the History of State and Law, Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure, Civil Law, Criminalistics, Constitutional Law, Family Law, Crime Psychology, and many others.

Our Academy has well-equipped classrooms, lecture-halls, auditoriums, libraries. After classes students are usually engaged in sports, student scientific societies or self dependent work.

Text 2

Lawyers

There are over 450,000 lawyers in the United States and almost 325,000 attorneys in active practice. Law firms and lawyers in private practice account for about sixty-five percent of the lawyers in the United States. Around fifteen percent are government lawyers who work for the various federal, state or local agencies. Another fifteen percent work for various corporations, unions, or trade associations. A small number of lawyers work for public interest or legal aid organizations. An even smaller number are law professors, judges, or elected officials.

Contrary to popular belief, most lawyers rarely go to court. The practice of law usually involves giving advice, drafting legal opinions, negotiating settlements, or otherwise providing out-of-court legal assistance.

Some lawyers do, however, go to court. In a civil case the lawyers stand in place of their clients and act as advocates for their clients' positions. Likewise, in a criminal case the lawyer for the defendant has a duty to do anything possible (without violating a code of professional ethics) to secure the release and acquittal of his or her client.

Text 3

The Profession of a Lawyer

One of the most popular professions among the young people of our country is the profession of a lawyer. In their opinion (and that is exactly so) the profession of a lawyer is very interesting, diverse and quite necessary for regulation of social relations in the state. A graduate from the law faculty or law institute may choose his place of work and occupation from a number of possible ones. He can be either a barrister (attorney, counsel for the defence) at the Bar or a judge at the People's Court. He can be a procurator or a procurator's assistant at the Procurator's Office. He can also be a notary at the notary office or a legal adviser at an enterprise or legal advice office. He can be a state arbitrator at the state arbitration … or sometimes an investigator at the Procurator's Office or in the organs of the militia.

A lawyer should be a perfect expert in laws and their proper usage. Since the job of a lawyer may involve any kind of human activities, he may deal with different types of people. Therefore last but not least a lawyer should be competent in human understanding.

So it is clear that the profession of a lawyer may give a specialist a lot of opportunities to use his professional and personal competence.

Text 4

Crime as a Social Problem

Is there a common trait that leads people down the road to actually committing a crime?

Crime is seen by some sociologists as a sign of cultural problems or as an effect of social and economic change. One sociologist to look at crime in this way was Emile Dirkheim. To him, social and economic changes lead to the decline of communities and religion which provide people with guidance about morality and standards of behaviour. These ideas were taken up by the American sociologist Robert Merton. In American society, he argued, goals of material success predominated. Socially approved norms exist to achieve these goals by legitimate means such as hard work and educational achievement, but not all who work hard would achieve the goals. And some devise their own means to achieve the goals – stealing money instead of earning it, for example.

Subcultural theory focuses on groups, often of young people, within which particular kinds of crime are seen as normal and where status may derive from delinquent or criminal activity.

Text 5

Scotland Yard

One of the most successful developments in Scotland Yard’s crime detection and emergency service has been the “999 system”. On receipt of a call the 999 Room operator ascertains by electronic device the position of the nearest available police car, which is contacted by radio. Almost instantly, a message is sent by teleprinter to the police stations concerned so that within seconds of a call, a police car is on its way to the scene and all neighbouring police stations have been notified.

An interesting branch of Scotland Yard is the branch of Police Dogs, first used as an experiment in 1938. Now these dogs are an important part of the Force. One dog, for example, can search a warehouse in ten minutes, whereas the same search would take six men an hour.

One of the most interesting places in Scotland Yard is the Map Room. Here is the General Crime Map, the Vehicles Recovered Map.

The Museum of Scotland Yard contains murder relics, forgery exhibits and coining moulds.

Text 6

Interrogation

The interrogation of criminal suspects and interviewing witnesses is the greatest source of direct information in the general administration of criminal justice. The line of dis­tinction between an interrogation and an interview is very thin. Both involve questioning and more important, listening. Interviewing is the process of general questioning of victims, witnesses and others who may have knowledge about the criminal activity and who are "non-suspects" at the time of the encoun­ter. The interrogation concerns the legal aspect of questioning and is the systematic questioning of a criminal suspect or a person who is reluctant to disclose information in his posses­sion, which is relevant to the investigation. In some respect interrogation refers to special police facilities and procedu­res of sleuthing. During the interview a "non-suspect" may be­come a suspect, the questioning then becomes interrogation.

There are multiple possible methods of interrogation including deception, torture, increasing suggestibility, and using mind-altering drugs.

Text 7

The Arrest

The term "arrest" has various definitions, the most widely used being – "the taking of a person into custody for the purpose of detaining him or her on a criminal charge" usually in relation to the investigation and prevention of crime. This ordinarily involves the officer's exercise of physical control over the suspect for the purpose of first transporting him to a police facility and then requesting that felony charges be filed against him. In the case of a misdemeanor, the arrested person may not be transported to the police facility, but instead may simply be released on the street after the officer has given him a citation (similar to a traffic ticket). The citation will direct the individual to appear in court on a certain day to answer charges specified in the citation. His failure to do so will result in a court order directing his arrest (a "bench warrant").

To make an arrest the officer must have reasonable grounds ("probable cause") to believe that a crime was committed and that the person to be arrested was the offender.

Text 8

Crime and Drugs

Different drugs have different pharmacological effects - some, like alcohol, are depressants, whereas others are stimulants. While drugs, particularly alcohol, are often involved in offences, particularly violent incidents, the consumption of drugs does not in itself lead to crime – many who consume alcohol or other drugs do not commit a crime. But the consumption or possession of illegal drugs is in itself a crime. This creates a "criminal industry" around the supply of illegal drugs and may also lead to increased property crime committed by those who need to support a drugs habit.

Substantial amounts of crime are also involved in the multi-national criminal drugs industry, which involves traffickers, importers, distributors and sellers. The growth of this industry has very much altered the nature of organised crime in Britain, with many former bank robbers and criminal "firms" having diversified into drug trafficking and distribution.

Text 9

Crime as a Social Problem

Is there a common trait that leads people down the road to actually committing a crime?

Crime is seen by some sociologists as a sign of cultural problems or as an effect of social and economic change. One sociologist to look at crime in this way was Emile Dirkheim. To him, social and economic changes lead to the decline of communities and religion which provide people with guidance about morality and standards of behaviour. These ideas were taken up by the American sociologist Robert Merton. In American society, he argued, goals of material success predominated. Socially approved norms exist to achieve these goals by legitimate means such as hard work and educational achievement, but not all who work hard would achieve the goals. And some devise their own means to achieve the goals – stealing money instead of earning it, for example.

Subcultural theory focuses on groups, often of young people, within which particular kinds of crime are seen as normal and where status may derive from delinquent or criminal activity.

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