Добавил:
Upload Опубликованный материал нарушает ваши авторские права? Сообщите нам.
Вуз: Предмет: Файл:
lexicology 2 module.doc
Скачиваний:
2
Добавлен:
09.11.2018
Размер:
364.54 Кб
Скачать

20. Give the functions of phraseological units and semantic classification.

Sometimes people also confuse proverbs as phraseological units. But they are different. If one compares proverbs and phraseological units in the semantic aspect, proverbs sum up the collective experience of the community, for example they moralize, give advice, give warning, criticize, admonish. No phraseological unit ever does any of these things. They do not stand for whole statements as proverbs do but for a single concept. The function of phraseological units in speech is purely nominative (they denote an object, an act, etc.), the function of proverbs in speech is communicative (they impart certain information). Professor A.V.Koonin includes proverbs in his classification and calls them communicative phraseological units. From this point of view one of the main criteria of a phraseological unit is its stability. If the quotient of phraseological stability in a word-group is not below the minimum. It means that we are dealing with a phraseological unit. That is why we may say that there does not seem to exist any rigid or permanent borderline between proverbs and phraseological units as the latter rather frequently originate from the former.

The semantic classification of phraseological units suggested by V.V.Vinogradov.

Academician Vinogradov classifies phraseological units which was based on the semantic principle and it is considered by some linguists of today to be outdated, because it was the first classification system. Here phraseological units can be classified according to the degree of motivation of their meaning. He pointed out three types.

1) Fusions where the degree of motivation is very low, we cannot guess the meaning of the whole from the meanings of its components, they are highly idiomatic and cannot be translated word for word into other languages. These are word-groups with a completely changed meaning, but in contrast to the unities they are demotivated, that is, their meaning cannot be deduced from the meanings of the constituent parts.

2) Unities where the meaning of the whole can be guessed from the meanings of its components, but it is transferred (metaphorical or metonymical). These are word-groups with a completely changed meaning, that is, the meaning of the unit does not correspond to the meaning of its constituent parts. They are motivated units or putting it in another way, the meaning of the whole unit can be deduced from the meanings of the constituent parts.

3) Collocations or phraseological combinations where words are combined in their original meaning but their combinations are different in different languages. These are word-groups with a partially changed meaning. They may be said to be clearly motivated, that is, the meaning of the unit can be easily deduced from the meanings of its constituents. This group contains one component used in its direct meaning, while the other is used metaphorically.

21. Give your points of view on the differences of phraseological units and proverbs. Give examples.

Sometimes people also confuse proverbs as phraseological units. But they are different. If one compares proverbs and phraseological units in the semantic aspect, proverbs sum up the collective experience of the community, for example they moralize, give advice, give warning, criticize, admonish. No phraseological unit ever does any of these things. They do not stand for whole statements as proverbs do but for a single concept. The function of phraseological units in speech is purely nominative (they denote an object, an act, etc.), the function of proverbs in speech is communicative (they impart certain information). Professor A.V.Koonin includes proverbs in his classification and calls them communicative phraseological units. From this point of view one of the main criteria of a phraseological unit is its stability. If the quotient of phraseological stability in a word-group is not below the minimum. It means that we are dealing with a phraseological unit. That is why we may say that there does not seem to exist any rigid or permanent borderline between proverbs and phraseological units as the latter rather frequently originate from the former.

A proverb is a short familiar epigrammatic saying expressing popular wisdom, a truth or a moral lesson in a concise and imaginative way. Proverbs have much in common with set expressions, because their lexical components are also constant, their meaning is traditional and mostly figurative, and they are introduced into speech ready-made.

Соседние файлы в предмете [НЕСОРТИРОВАННОЕ]