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Symbols

%ROWTYPE attribute, 7-7 used in stored functions, 7-8

%TYPE attribute, 7-7

Numerics

3GL, definition, 1-4 4GL, definition, 1-3

A

Active Data Object, translating to PSP,

13-20

Active Server Pages, translating to PSP,

13-20

AFTER SUSPEND event, handling suspended

storage allocation,

5-39

AFTER triggers

 

 

auditing and,

9-33, 9-35

correlation names and, 9-17

specifying, 9-6

 

agent, definition,

11-4

ALL_ERRORS view, debugging stored

procedures,

7-35

 

ALL_SOURCE view,

7-35

ALTER SESSION statement, SERIALIZABLE clause, 5-23

ALTER TABLE statement

defining integrity constraints, 3-18

DISABLE ALL TRIGGERS clause,

9-29

DISABLE CONSTRAINT clause,

3-22

DROP CONSTRAINT clause, 3-25

ENABLE ALL TRIGGERS clause,

9-29

ENABLE CONSTRAINT clause,

3-21

Index

ALTER TABLE statement (continued)

 

INITRANS parameter,

5-23

 

RETENTION option, for flashback, 15-5

 

ALTER TRIGGER statement

 

 

DISABLE clause,

9-29

 

 

ENABLE clause,

9-29

 

 

anonymous PL/SQL blocks

 

 

about, 7-2

 

 

 

 

 

compared to triggers,

7-20

 

ANSI SQL92

 

 

 

 

 

FIPS flagger, 5-2

 

 

 

 

 

AnyData datatype,

2-44

 

 

 

AnyDataSet datatype,

2-44

 

 

AnyType datatype,

2-44

 

 

 

applications

 

 

 

 

 

calling stored procedures and packages,

7-45

unhandled exceptions in,

7-38

 

attributes

 

 

 

 

 

%rowtype, PL/SQL,

1-5

 

 

%type, PL/SQL,

1-5

 

 

 

auditing, triggers and,

9-32

 

 

autonomous routine,

 

5-29

 

 

autonomous scope, definition,

5-29

 

autonomous transactions,

5-28 to 5-36

 

AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION pragma,

5-29

B

BEFORE triggers

complex security authorizations, 9-45

correlation names and,

9-17

derived column values,

9-46

specifying,

9-6

 

BFILE datatype,

2-7, 2-34

 

Index-1

binary data, RAW and LONG RAW,

2-35

Binary Large Object,

2-34

 

 

BINARY_DOUBLE datatype,

2-5, 2-11

BINARY_FLOAT datatype,

2-5, 2-11

binding, bulk, definition,

7-17

 

blank-padded comparison, 2-10

 

BLOB datatype,

2-7, 2-34

 

 

body of package, definition,

7-13

 

Boolean expressions,

2-43

 

 

bulk binding, definition,

7-17

 

bulk binds,

7-17

 

 

 

 

DML statements,

7-18

 

 

FOR loops,

7-19

 

 

 

 

SELECT statements,

7-19

 

 

usage,

7-18

 

 

 

 

 

BY REF phrase,

8-32

 

 

 

 

BYTE qualifier for column lengths,

2-9

C

call specifications,

8-4 to 8-53

 

callbacks,

8-47 to 8-49

 

 

 

canceling a cursor,

5-10

 

 

CATPROC.SQL script,

10-2

 

 

CC datetime format element,

2-27

century,

2-25

 

 

 

 

 

date format masks,

2-21

 

 

CGI variables,

13-19

 

 

 

CHAR datatype,

2-4

 

 

 

CHAR qualifier for column lengths, 2-9

character data,

2-8

 

 

 

Character Large Object,

2-34

 

CHARSETFORM property,

8-28

 

CHARSETID property,

8-28

 

 

CHARTOROWID function,

2-41

 

CHECK constraint, triggers and,

9-38, 9-43

check constraints, how to use, 3-15

client, definition,

11-4

 

 

 

client events,

10-8

 

 

 

CLOB datatype, 2-5, 2-34

 

 

column type attribute, PL/SQL,

1-5

columns

 

 

 

 

 

 

accessing in triggers,

9-17

 

default values,

3-5, 7-51

 

 

generating derived values with triggers, 9-46

columns (continued)

listing in an UPDATE trigger, 9-6, 9-20 multiple foreign key constraints, 3-11

number of CHECK constraints limit,

3-17

specifying length in bytes or characters, 2-9

COMMIT statement,

5-5

 

comparison operators

 

 

blank-padded and non-padded data,

2-10

dates, 2-21

 

 

compile-time errors,

7-33

 

compiling PL/SQL procedures to native code, 7-21 composite keys

foreign,

3-8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

restricting nulls in, 3-17

 

 

 

 

 

concurrency,

5-19

 

 

 

 

 

 

conditional expressions, in WHERE clause,

2-32

conditional predicates, trigger bodies,

 

9-15, 9-19

connection pooling,

1-23

 

 

 

 

 

consistency, read-only transactions,

5-7

 

constraining tables,

9-22

 

 

 

 

 

constraints, See integrity constraints

 

 

 

context switches, reducing with bulk binds,

7-17

converting data,

2-40

 

 

 

 

 

ANSI datatypes,

2-39

 

 

 

 

 

assignments,

2-41

 

 

 

 

 

expression evaluation, 2-43

 

 

 

 

SQL/DS and DB2 datatypes,

2-40

 

 

year and century considerations,

2-26

 

cookies,

13-19

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

correlation names,

9-14 to 9-19

 

 

 

 

NEW,

9-17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OLD,

9-17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCING option and,

9-19

 

 

 

when preceded by a colon, 9-17

 

 

 

CREATE INDEX statement,

4-7

 

 

 

CREATE PACKAGE BODY statement,

7-15

 

CREATE PACKAGE statement,

7-15

 

 

CREATE TABLE statement

 

 

 

 

 

defining integrity constraints,

3-18

 

 

INITRANS parameter in,

5-23

 

 

 

CREATE TRIGGER statement,

9-2

 

 

 

REFERENCING option,

9-19

 

 

 

cursor and cursor variable, definitions,

5-8

 

cursors,

5-8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

canceling,

5-10

 

 

 

 

 

 

Index-2

cursors, 5-8 (continued) closing, 5-10

declaring and opening cursor variables, 7-31

maximum number of,

5-9

pointers to, 7-30

 

private SQL areas and,

5-8

custom OWA, definition,

13-6

D

DAD, definition, 13-4

 

 

 

 

data blocks, shown in ROWIDs, 2-37

 

data conversion, See converting data

 

 

data dictionary

 

 

 

 

 

compile-time errors,

7-35

 

 

integrity constraints in,

3-28

 

 

procedure source code,

7-35

 

 

data object number, extended ROWID,

2-36, 2-37

data recovery using flashback features,

15-3

Database Access Descriptor,

13-4

 

 

datafiles, shown in ROWIDs, 2-37

 

 

datatypes,

2-2

 

 

 

 

 

ANSI/ISO,

 

2-39

 

 

 

 

BFILE,

2-7

 

 

 

 

 

BINARY_DOUBLE,

2-5, 2-11

 

 

BINARY_FLOAT,

2-5, 2-11

 

 

BLOB,

2-7

 

 

 

 

 

CHAR,

2-4, 2-8

 

 

 

 

column length,

2-9

 

 

 

character,

2-8

 

 

 

 

CLOB,

2-5

 

 

 

 

 

column lengths for character types,

2-9

conversion,

2-40

 

 

 

 

DATE,

2-6, 2-25

 

 

 

 

DB2, 2-39

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND,

2-6

 

INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH,

2-6

LONG,

2-5, 2-8

 

 

 

 

LONG RAW,

2-8

 

 

 

 

MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY, 2-33

 

 

native floating point, 2-11

 

 

native floating-point, IEEE 754 exceptions not

raised,

 

2-15

 

 

 

 

NCHAR,

2-4, 2-8

 

 

 

 

NCLOB,

2-5

 

 

 

 

datatypes, 2-2 (continued)

 

NUMBER,

2-5, 2-11

 

numeric,

2-11

 

NVARCHAR2, 2-4, 2-8

 

RAW, 2-7

 

 

ROWID,

2-8, 2-36

 

SQL/DS,

2-39

 

TIMESTAMP,

2-6

 

TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE, 2-7

TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE, 2-7

UROWID,

2-8

 

VARCHAR, See datatypes, VARCHAR2

VARCHAR2,

2-4, 2-8

 

column length, 2-9

 

date and time data, representing,

2-20

date arithmetic,

2-43

 

functions for,

2-22

 

DATE datatype,

2-6, 2-20

 

centuries,

2-25

 

data conversion, 2-41

 

DB2 datatypes,

2-39

 

DBA_ERRORS view, debugging stored

procedures,

7-35

 

DBA_SOURCE view, 7-35

 

DBMS_FLASHBACK package,

15-7

DBMS_LOCK package, 5-17

 

DBMS_RESUMABLE package, handling suspended storage allocation, 5-39

DBMS_SQL package advantages of, 6-16 client-side programs, 6-16 DESCRIBE, 6-16

differences with native dynamic SQL, 6-11 See also dynamic SQL

DBMS_STATS package and Flashback Query, 15-15

DBMS_TYPES package, 2-44 DBMS_XMLGEN package, 2-47 DBMS_XMLQUERY package, 2-47 DBMS_XMLSAVE package, 2-47

DDL statements, package state and, 7-16 DEBUG_EXTPROC package, 8-51 debugging

stored procedures, 7-40 triggers, 9-28

Index-3

dedicated external procedure agents, 8-6

default parameters in stored functions,

7-53

definer's-rights procedure,

7-46

 

 

DELETE statement

 

 

 

 

column values and triggers, 9-17

 

data consistency,

5-10

 

 

 

triggers for referential integrity,

9-40, 9-41

denormal floating-point numbers,

2-13

dependencies

 

 

 

 

among PL/SQL library objects,

7-21

in stored triggers,

9-27

 

 

 

schema objects, trigger management,

9-22

timestamp model,

7-22

 

 

 

DESC function, 4-9

 

 

 

 

deterministic function, definition,

7-56

DETERMINISTIC keyword,

7-56

 

 

dictionary_obj_owner event attribute,

10-3

dictionary_obj_owner_list event attribute,

10-3

dictionary_obj_type event attribute, 10-3

disabled integrity constraint, definition,

3-19

disabled trigger, definition,

9-28

 

disabling

 

 

 

 

 

integrity constraints,

3-20

 

triggers,

9-28, 9-29

 

 

 

distributed databases

 

 

 

referential integrity and,

3-15

 

remote stored procedures,

7-47, 7-48

 

triggers and,

9-22

 

 

 

distributed queries

 

 

 

flashback features, 15-16

 

 

handling errors, 7-38

 

 

 

distributed transaction processing

 

architecture,

16-2

 

 

 

distributed update, definition, 7-49

 

DML_LOCKS parameter,

5-11

 

double datatype, native in C and C++, 2-19

DROP INDEX statement,

4-6

 

DROP TRIGGER statement,

9-28

 

dropping

 

 

 

 

 

indexes,

4-6

 

 

 

 

integrity constraints,

3-25

 

packages,

7-11

 

 

 

procedures,

7-11

 

 

 

triggers,

9-28

 

 

 

dynamic SQL

 

 

application development languages,

6-20

invoker's rights,

6-7

 

invoking PL/SQL blocks, 6-6

 

optimization, 6-5

 

queries,

6-4

 

 

scenario,

6-7

 

 

usage, 6-3

 

 

See also

 

 

 

DBMS_SQL package

 

native dynamic SQL

 

dynamic Web pages,

13-19

 

dynamically typed data, representing,

2-44

E

e-mail, sending from PL/SQL, 13-15 embedded SQL, 7-2

enabled integrity constraint, definition, 3-19 enabled trigger, definition, 9-28

enabling

integrity constraints, 3-20 triggers, 9-28

errors

application errors raised by Oracle Database

packages,

7-36

 

remote procedures,

7-38

user-defined,

7-35, 7-37

event attribute functions, 10-2

event notification,

10-1, 11-5

event publication,

9-50 to 9-52, 10-1

triggering, 9-50

 

events

 

 

 

attribute,

10-2

 

 

client, 10-8

 

 

resource manager,

10-7

system,

10-1

 

 

tracking,

9-49, 10-1

 

exception handlers, in PL/SQL, 7-2 exception to a constraint, 3-20 exceptions

anonymous blocks,

7-3

 

during trigger execution,

9-20

effects on applications,

7-38

remote procedures,

7-38

Index-4

exceptions (continued)

 

 

 

unhandled,

7-38

 

 

 

exclusive locks, LOCK TABLE statement,

5-15

explicit locks,

5-10

 

 

 

expression filtering,

2-32

 

 

expressions, conditional in WHERE clause,

2-32

extended ROWID format,

2-36

 

external LOB, definition,

2-34

 

external procedure,

8-3

 

 

DBA tasks required, 8-6

 

DEBUG_EXTPROC package, 8-51

 

debugging,

8-50

 

 

 

definition,

8-3

 

 

 

maximum number of parameters, 8-53

 

specifying datatypes,

8-19

 

extproc process, 8-6, 8-37

 

F

features, new, i-xxxvii

FIPS flagger, interactive SQL statements and, 5-2 firing of triggers, 9-1

FIXED_DATE initialization parameter, 2-21

flashback features,

15-2

 

 

 

performance,

15-15

 

 

 

flashback privileges, 15-4

 

 

 

Flashback Query,

15-5

 

 

 

DBMS_STATS package,

15-15

 

Flashback Transaction Query,

15-12

Flashback Version Query,

15-10

 

FLASHBACK_TRANSACTION_QUERY

view,

15-12

 

 

 

 

float datatype, native in C and C++,

2-19

floating-point numbers, 2-11

 

 

FOR EACH ROW clause,

9-13

 

FORALL statement, using,

7-17

 

foreign key constraints

 

 

 

defining,

3-27

 

 

 

 

enabling,

3-20, 3-26

 

 

 

NOT NULL constraint and,

3-10

 

one-to-many relationship,

3-10

 

one-to-n relationships,

3-10

 

UNIQUE key constraint and, 3-11

format mask, definition, 2-28

 

 

format masks, TO_DATE function,

2-21

fourth-generation computing language, definition, 1-3

full-text search, using Oracle9i Text, 2-34 functions, See PL/SQL functions

G

geographic coordinate data, representing, 2-33

global entity, definition,

7-15

global OWA, definition,

13-6

grantee event attribute,

10-3

H

HEXTORAW function,

2-41

hiding PL/SQL code, 7-20

hostname, 13-16

 

HTML

 

displaying within PSP files, 13-22

retrieving from PL/SQL, 13-16

HTP and HTF packages,

13-19

HTTP URLs, 13-16

 

I

IBM datatypes, 2-39

IEEE 754 standard for floating-point numbers, 2-12

image maps,

13-19

 

IN OUT parameter mode, 7-6

IN parameter mode,

7-6

indexes

 

 

 

creating, 4-6

 

 

dropping,

4-6

 

 

function-based, 4-8

guidelines,

4-3

 

 

order of columns,

4-4

privileges,

4-6

 

 

SQL*Loader and,

4-3

temporary segments and, 4-3

when to create,

4-2

INDICATOR property, 8-27

-INF and +INF, 2-14

 

infinity values,

2-14

 

initialization parameters

DML_LOCKS,

5-11

Index-5

initialization parameters (continued) OPEN_CURSORS, 5-9 REMOTE_DEPENDENCIES_MODE, 7-28

INITRANS parameter,

5-23

 

 

 

 

INSERT statement

 

 

 

 

 

 

column values and triggers,

9-17

 

read consistency,

5-10

 

 

 

 

instance_num event attribute,

10-3

 

INSTEAD OF triggers,

9-8

 

 

 

 

on nested table view columns,

9-18

 

integrity constraints

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHECK,

3-15

 

 

 

 

 

 

composite UNIQUE keys,

3-7

 

 

defining,

3-17

 

 

 

 

 

 

disabling,

3-20, 3-21, 3-22

 

 

 

dropping,

3-25

 

 

 

 

 

 

enabling,

3-19

 

 

 

 

 

 

examples,

3-2

 

 

 

 

 

 

exceptions to,

3-23

 

 

 

 

 

listing definitions of,

3-28

 

 

 

naming,

3-19

 

 

 

 

 

 

NOT NULL,

3-3

 

 

 

 

 

 

performance considerations,

3-3

 

PRIMARY KEY,

3-5

 

 

 

 

 

privileges required for creating,

3-19

 

renaming,

3-24

 

 

 

 

 

 

triggers vs.,

9-2, 9-37

 

 

 

 

UNIQUE,

3-6

 

 

 

 

 

 

violations,

3-20

 

 

 

 

 

 

when to use,

3-2

 

 

 

 

 

 

interactive block execution,

7-44

 

 

INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND datatype,

2-6, 2-20

INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH datatype,

2-6, 2-20

invoker's-rights procedure,

7-46

 

 

is_alter_column event attribute,

10-3

 

ISOLATION LEVEL

 

 

 

 

 

 

changing,

5-23

 

 

 

 

 

 

SERIALIZABLE,

5-23

 

 

 

 

J

Java

calling methods through call specifications, 8-4 compared to PL/SQL, 1-41

Java (continued)

generating wrapper classes with JPublisher, 1-16

JDBC, overview, 1-9

loading into the database, 8-5 SQLJ, overview, 1-13

Java Server Pages, translating to PSP, 13-20 Javascript, translating to PSP, 13-20

JDBC, See Oracle JDBC

JScript, translating to PSP, 13-20

K

keys

foreign, 3-26

unique, composite, 3-7

L

large data, representing with LOBs,

2-34

Large Objects (LOBs),

2-34

 

 

libraries,

1-41

 

 

 

 

library units, remote dependencies,

7-21

loadjava utility,

1-16

 

 

 

loadpsp command, 13-29

 

 

LOB datatypes, 1-38, 2-34

 

 

external, definition,

2-34

 

 

support in OO4O,

1-37

 

 

use in triggers,

9-18

 

 

LOCK TABLE statement, 5-11

 

locks

 

 

 

 

 

explicit, 5-10

 

 

 

 

LOCK TABLE statement,

5-11, 5-12

privileges for manual acquirement, 5-15

user,

5-17

 

 

 

 

UTLLOCKT.SQL script,

5-19

 

LONG datatype,

2-5, 2-8

 

 

use in triggers,

9-22

 

 

LONG RAW datatype,

2-8, 2-35

 

LOWER function,

4-9

 

 

 

M

mail, sending from PL/SQL,

13-15

main transaction, definition,

5-29

Index-6

manual locks, 5-10

 

 

 

LOCK TABLE statement,

5-11

 

mask, format, definition, 2-28

 

match full rule for NULL values, 3-10

match partial rule for NULL values,

3-10

MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY datatype,

2-33

memory, scalability,

7-63

 

 

migration, ROWID format,

2-38

 

mod_plsql, definition, 13-3

 

modes, parameter,

7-6

 

 

mutating table, definition,

9-22

 

mutating tables, trigger restrictions,

9-22

N

NaN (not a number value), 2-14

 

National Character Set Large Object, 2-34

 

native dynamic SQL

 

 

advantages of,

6-11

 

 

differences with DBMS_SQL package,

6-11

fetching into records,

6-15

 

performance,

6-14

 

 

user-defined types,

6-15

 

See also dynamic SQL

 

 

native execution, of PL/SQL procedures,

7-21

native float and native double datatypes in C and

C++, 2-19

 

 

 

 

native floating-point datatypes,

2-11

arithmetic, rounding behavior,

2-16

IEEE 754 exceptions not raised,

2-15

infinity values,

2-14

 

 

 

NCHAR datatype,

2-4, 2-8

 

 

NCLOB datatype,

2-5, 2-34

 

 

negative infinity value,

2-14

 

 

negative zero value,

2-14

 

 

NEW correlation name,

9-17

 

 

new features, i-xxxvii

 

 

 

NLS_DATE_FORMAT parameter,

2-21

NLSSORT order, and indexes,

4-9

 

non-padded comparison,

2-10

 

 

normalization of floating-point numbers, 2-13

not a number (NaN) value,

2-14

NOT NULL constraint

 

CHECK constraint and,

3-17

data integrity, 3-20

 

NOT NULL constraint (continued) when to use, 3-3

notification, event,

10-1, 11-5

NOWAIT option,

5-12

NUMBER datatype,

2-5, 2-11, 2-19

numeric datatypes,

2-11

NVARCHAR2 datatype, 2-4, 2-8

O

OAS,

13-19

 

 

 

 

 

 

object columns, indexes on,

4-9

 

object support in OO4O,

1-37

 

OCCI, overview,

1-25

 

 

 

OCI,

7-2

 

 

 

 

 

 

applications,

7-4

 

 

 

cancelling cursors, 5-10

 

 

closing cursors,

5-10

 

 

 

overview,

1-25

 

 

 

 

parts of,

1-27

 

 

 

 

 

vs precompilers,

1-40

 

 

OLD correlation name,

9-17

 

 

one-to-many relationship, with foreign keys, 3-10

one-to-one relationship, with foreign keys,

3-11

OO4O, See Oracle Objects for OLE

 

open string for XA,

16-9

 

 

OPEN_CURSORS parameter,

5-9

 

OR REPLACE clause, for creating packages,

7-15

ora_dictionary_obj_owner event attribute,

10-3

ora_dictionary_obj_owner_list event attribute,

10-3

ora_dictionary_obj_type event attribute,

10-3

 

ora_grantee event attribute, 10-3

 

 

 

 

ora_instance_num event attribute,

10-3

 

 

ora_is_alter_column event attribute,

10-3

 

ora_is_creating_nested_table event attribute,

10-4

ora_is_drop_column event attribute,

10-4

 

ora_is_servererror event attribute,

10-4

 

 

ora_login_user event attribute, 10-4

 

 

 

ora_privileges event attribute,

10-4

 

 

 

ora_revokee event attribute,

10-4

 

 

 

 

ORA_ROWSCN pseudocolumn,

15-9

 

 

ora_server_error event attribute,

10-4

 

 

ora_sysevent event attribute,

10-4

 

 

 

ora_with_grant_option event attribute,

10-7

 

ORA-21301 error, fixing, 16-12, 16-14

 

 

Index-7

OraAQ object, 1-36

OraAQAgent object, 1-37

OraAQMsg object,

1-37

OraBFILE object,

1-38

OraBLOB object,

1-38

Oracle Application Server (OAS), 13-19

Oracle Call Interface, See OCI

Oracle Data Control (ODC), 1-39

Oracle Data Provider for .NET, overview, 1-29

Oracle Database 10g, new application development

features,

i-xxxvii

 

 

 

Oracle Database errors,

7-3

 

Oracle JDBC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

definition,

1-9

 

 

 

 

 

example,

1-12

 

 

 

 

 

OCI driver,

1-10

 

 

 

 

Oracle Database extensions,

1-11

server driver,

1-11

 

 

 

stored procedures,

 

1-19

 

 

thin driver,

1-10

 

 

 

 

Oracle JDeveloper, definition,

1-15

Oracle JPublisher, definition,

1-17

Oracle Objects for OLE

 

 

 

automation server,

 

1-31

 

 

C++ Class Library,

 

1-39

 

 

LOB and object support,

1-37

object model,

1-32

 

 

 

overview,

1-30

 

 

 

 

 

Oracle SQLJ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

advantages over JDBC,

1-15

definition,

1-13

 

 

 

 

 

design,

1-15

 

 

 

 

 

 

in the server,

1-16

 

 

 

stored programs,

 

1-16

 

 

OraCLOB object,

1-38

 

 

 

OraDatabase object,

 

1-34

 

 

OraDynaset object,

1-34

 

 

OraField object,

1-35

 

 

 

OraMDAttribute object,

1-35

 

OraMetaData object,

1-35

 

 

OraParamArray object,

1-36

 

OraParameter object,

1-35

 

 

OraServer object,

1-33

 

 

 

OraSession object,

1-33

 

 

OraSQLStmt object,

 

1-36

 

 

OUT parameter mode,

7-6

overloading

 

packaged functions,

7-63

procedures and functions, definition, 7-12 using RESTRICT_REFERENCES, 7-63

OWA function invocation types, 13-6 OWA* packages, 13-19

P

package, definition,

7-12

 

 

 

package body,

7-12

 

 

 

 

 

package OWA, definition,

13-6

 

 

package specification,

 

7-12

 

 

 

packages,

1-41

 

 

 

 

 

creating,

7-15

 

 

 

 

 

DBMS_OUTPUT, example of use,

7-3

DEBUG_EXTPROC, 8-51

 

 

dropping,

7-11

 

 

 

 

 

in PL/SQL,

7-12

 

 

 

 

 

naming of,

7-16

 

 

 

 

 

Oracle Database,

7-17

 

 

 

privileges for execution,

7-45

 

 

privileges required to create,

7-16

privileges required to create procedures in, 7-10

serially reusable packages, 7-63

 

session state and,

7-16

 

 

 

synonyms,

7-49

 

 

 

 

 

where documented,

7-17

 

 

parallel server, distributed locks,

5-10

PARALLEL_ENABLE keyword,

7-56

parameters

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

default values, 7-9

 

 

 

 

with stored functions,

7-53

 

modes,

7-6

 

 

 

 

 

parse tree,

9-26

 

 

 

 

 

pcode, when generated for triggers,

9-26

performance

 

 

 

 

 

 

index column order,

4-4

 

 

native dynamic SQL,

6-14

 

 

permanent and temporary LOB instances, 2-34 platform-specific Oracle Database documentation,

PL/SQL wrapper, 7-20 PL/SQL, 7-2

anonymous blocks, 7-2

Index-8

PL/SQL, 7-2 (continued)

 

 

 

 

 

calling remote stored procedures,

7-48

 

compared to Java,

1-41

 

 

 

 

cursor variables,

7-30

 

 

 

 

 

dependencies among library units,

7-21

exception handlers,

7-2

 

 

 

 

functions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

arguments,

 

7-53

 

 

 

 

 

overloading,

7-63

 

 

 

 

 

parameter default values,

7-53

 

purity level,

7-62

 

 

 

 

 

RESTRICT_REFERENCES pragma,

7-59

using,

7-50

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

hiding source code,

7-20

 

 

 

 

invoking with dynamic SQL,

6-6

 

 

objects,

1-6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

overview,

1-3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

packages,

7-12

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

program units,

7-2

 

 

 

 

 

RAISE statement,

7-36

 

 

 

 

 

sample code,

1-4

 

 

 

 

 

 

serially reusable packages,

7-63

 

 

server pages,

13-19 to 13-30

 

 

 

tables,

7-8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

of records,

7-8

 

 

 

 

 

 

trigger bodies,

 

9-15, 9-17

 

 

 

 

user-defined errors,

7-36

 

 

 

 

Web toolkit,

13-19

 

 

 

 

 

 

wrapper to hide code,

7-20

 

 

 

PL/SQL Gateway, definition,

13-3

 

 

PL/SQL Web Toolkit, definition,

13-3

 

PLSQL_COMPILER_FLAGS initialization

 

parameter,

7-21

 

 

 

 

 

 

positive infinity value,

2-14

 

 

 

 

positive zero value,

2-14

 

 

 

 

 

posting, message, definition,

11-5

 

 

pragma,

5-37

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RESTRICT_REFERENCES, 7-59

 

 

SERIALLY_REUSABLE pragma,

7-63, 7-64

precompilers,

7-45

 

 

 

 

 

 

applications,

7-4

 

 

 

 

 

 

calling stored procedures and packages,

7-45

vs OCI,

1-40

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PRIMARY KEY constraints

 

 

 

 

 

choosing a primary key,

3-5

 

 

 

PRIMARY KEY constraints (continued)

disabling,

3-21

 

 

 

 

enabling,

3-20

 

 

 

 

 

multiple columns in,

3-6

 

 

UNIQUE key constraint vs.,

3-6

 

private SQL areas, cursors and,

5-8

 

privileges

 

 

 

 

 

 

creating integrity constraints,

3-19

creating triggers, 9-26

 

 

dropping triggers,

9-28

 

 

flashback,

15-4

 

 

 

 

index creation,

4-6

 

 

 

 

manually acquiring locks, 5-15

 

recompiling triggers,

9-28

 

 

stored procedure execution,

7-45

triggers,

9-26

 

 

 

 

 

Pro*C/C++, overview of application

 

development,

1-20

 

 

 

Pro*COBOL, overview of application

development,

1-23

 

 

 

procedure

 

 

 

 

 

 

external, definition,

 

8-3

 

 

procedures

 

 

 

 

 

 

called by triggers,

9-22

 

 

external,

8-3

 

 

 

 

 

program units in PL/SQL, 7-2

 

 

property

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHARSETFORM,

8-28

 

 

CHARSETID,

8-28

 

 

 

INDICATOR,

8-27

 

 

 

pseudocolumns, modifying views,

9-9

PSP, See PL/SQL server pages

 

 

.psp files, 13-21

 

 

 

 

 

publish-subscribe,

11-2 to 11-6

 

 

purity of stored function, definition,

7-55

Q

queries dynamic, 6-4

errors in distributed queries, 7-38

R

RAISE statement, 7-36

Index-9

RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR procedure,

7-35

remote procedures,

7-38

 

 

 

 

raising exceptions, triggers,

9-20

 

 

 

RAW datatype,

2-7, 2-35

 

 

 

 

RAWTOHEX function,

 

2-41

 

 

 

 

RAWTONHEX function,

2-41

 

 

 

read-only transactions,

 

5-7

 

 

 

 

recovery, data, using flashback features,

15-3

REF column, indexes on,

4-9

 

 

 

REFERENCING option,

 

9-19

 

 

 

referential integrity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

distributed databases and,

3-15

 

 

one-to-many relationship,

3-10

 

 

 

one-to-one relationship, 3-11

 

 

 

privileges required to create foreign keys,

3-27

self-referential constraints,

9-41

 

 

triggers and,

9-38 to 9-42

 

 

 

 

remote dependencies,

7-21

 

 

 

 

signatures,

7-23

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

specifying timestamps or signatures,

7-28

remote exception handling,

7-38, 9-20

 

 

remote queries, flashback features,

15-16

 

REMOTE_DEPENDENCIES_MODE

 

 

parameter,

7-28

 

 

 

 

 

 

repeatable reads,

5-7, 5-10

 

 

 

 

resource manager,

16-2

 

 

 

 

 

events, 10-7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RESTRICT_REFERENCES pragma,

7-59

 

 

syntax for,

7-60

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

restrictions, system triggers,

9-25

 

 

 

resumable storage allocation,

5-38

 

 

definition,

5-38

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

examples,

5-39

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RETENTION GUARANTEE clause for undo

 

tablespace,

15-4

 

 

 

 

 

 

reusable packages,

7-63

 

 

 

 

 

RM (resource manager),

16-2

 

 

 

RNDS argument,

7-60

 

 

 

 

 

 

RNPS argument,

7-60

 

 

 

 

 

 

ROLLBACK statement,

 

5-5

 

 

 

 

rolling back transactions, to savepoints,

5-6

 

rounding modes for native floating-point

 

 

numbers,

2-15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

routine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

autonomous scope, definition,

5-29

 

 

routine (continued)

 

 

 

 

external, definition,

8-3

 

 

routines

 

 

 

 

 

external,

8-3

 

 

 

 

service,

8-38

 

 

 

 

row locking, manual,

5-16

 

 

row triggers

 

 

 

 

 

defining,

9-13

 

 

 

 

REFERENCING option, 9-19

 

timing,

9-6

 

 

 

 

UPDATE statements and,

9-6, 9-20

ROWID, definition,

2-37

 

 

ROWID datatype,

2-8, 2-36

 

 

extended ROWID format,

2-36

 

migration, 2-38

 

 

 

 

ROWIDTOCHAR function,

2-41

 

ROWIDTONCHAR function,

2-41

 

rows

 

 

 

 

 

shown in ROWIDs,

2-37

 

 

violating integrity constraints, 3-20

rowtype attribute, PL/SQL,

1-5

 

ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception,

7-33

RR date format, 2-26

 

 

 

RS locks, LOCK TABLE statement,

5-12

run-time error handling, 7-35

 

RX locks, LOCK TABLE statement,

5-12

S

S locks, LOCK TABLE statement, 5-12

SAVEPOINT statement,

5-6

savepoints

 

maximum number of,

5-6

rolling back to, 5-6

 

scalability, serially reusable packages, 7-63

scope

 

 

autonomous, definition,

5-29

scripting, 13-19

 

 

scrollable cursors,

1-23

 

search data, representing,

2-34

secure application roles, i-xlv

SELECT statement

 

 

AS OF clause,

15-5

 

FOR UPDATE clause,

5-16

read consistency, 5-10

 

Index-10

SELECT statement (continued)

 

 

VERSIONS BETWEEN...AND clause,

15-10

SERIALIZABLE option, for ISOLATION

 

LEVEL, 5-23

 

 

serializable transactions, 5-19

 

 

serially reusable PL/SQL packages, 7-63

 

SERIALLY_REUSABLE pragma,

7-64

 

service routine, 8-38

 

 

sessions, package state and, 7-16

 

SET TRANSACTION statement,

5-8

 

ISOLATION LEVEL clause,

5-23

 

SERIALIZABLE, 5-23

 

 

share locks (S), LOCK TABLE statement,

5-12

share row exclusive locks (SRX), LOCK TABLE statement, 5-14

side effects, subprogram, 7-6, 7-55 signatures

PL/SQL library unit dependencies, 7-21 to manage remote dependencies, 7-23 SORT_AREA_SIZE parameter, index creation

and, 4-3

sorting, with function-based indexes, 4-8

specification part of package, definition,

7-13

SQL statements

 

 

 

 

 

execution, 5-2

 

 

 

 

 

in trigger bodies,

9-17, 9-22

 

 

not allowed in triggers,

9-22

 

 

SQL*Loader, indexes and,

4-3

 

 

SQL*Module, applications,

7-4

 

 

SQL*Plus

 

 

 

 

 

anonymous blocks,

7-4

 

 

 

compile-time errors,

7-33

 

 

invoking stored procedures,

7-43

 

loading a procedure,

7-10

 

 

SET SERVEROUTPUT ON command,

7-3

SHOW ERRORS command,

7-34

 

SQL/DS datatypes,

2-39

 

 

 

SRX locks, LOCK Table statement, 5-14

 

standards, IEEE 754,

2-11

 

 

 

state

 

 

 

 

 

package, definition,

7-63

 

 

session, package objects,

7-16

 

Web application, definition,

13-14

 

stateful and stateless user interfaces,

 

definitions, 1-3

 

 

 

 

 

statement triggers

 

 

conditional code for statements, 9-19

row evaluation order,

9-7

specifying SQL statement,

9-5

timing, 9-6

 

 

trigger evaluation order,

9-7

UPDATE statements and,

9-6, 9-20

valid SQL statements,

9-22

storage allocation errors, resuming execution

after,

5-38

 

 

 

stored functions,

7-4

 

 

creating,

 

7-9

 

 

 

restrictions,

7-51

 

 

stored procedure, definition,

7-5

stored procedures,

7-4

 

argument values,

7-46

 

creating,

 

7-9

 

 

 

distributed query creation,

7-38

exceptions,

7-35, 7-37

 

invoking,

 

7-43

 

 

 

names of,

 

7-5

 

 

 

overloading names of, 7-12

parameter, default values,

7-9

privileges,

 

7-45

 

 

remote,

7-47

 

 

 

remote objects and,

7-48

 

storing,

7-9

 

 

 

synonyms,

 

7-49

 

 

turning into a Web page,

13-19

subnormal floating-point numbers, 2-13 synonyms, stored procedures and packages, 7-49 SYS_XMLAGG function, 2-47

SYS_XMLGEN function, 2-47 SYSDATE function, 2-21 system events, 10-1

attributes, 10-2 client, 10-8

resource manager, 10-7 tracking, 9-49, 10-1

T

table, mutating, definition, 9-22 tables

constraining, 9-22

Index-11

tables (continued)

 

 

 

in PL/SQL,

7-8

 

 

 

mutating,

9-22

 

 

 

TCP/IP, 13-16

 

 

 

temporary and permanent LOB instances,

2-34

temporary segments, index creation and,

4-3

text search, using Oracle9i Text,

2-34

 

third-generation computing language,

 

definition,

1-4

 

 

 

time and date data, representing,

2-20

 

time zones, functions,

2-23

 

 

TIMESTAMP datatype,

2-6, 2-20

 

 

TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE

 

datatype,

2-7, 2-20

 

 

TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE datatype, 2-7, 2-20

timestamps, PL/SQL library unit

dependencies,

7-21

TM (transaction manager), 16-2

TO_CHAR function,

2-41

CC date format,

2-27

RR date format,

2-26

TO_CLOB function,

2-41

TO_DATE function,

2-21, 2-41

RR date format,

2-26

TO_NCHAR function,

2-41

TO_NCLOB function,

2-41

TO_NUMBER function,

2-41

tracking system events,

9-49, 10-1

transaction manager,

16-2

transaction set consistency, definition, 5-25

transaction, main, definition,

5-29

transactions

 

 

 

autonomous,

5-28 to 5-36

 

read-only, 5-8

 

 

serializable,

5-19

 

 

SET TRANSACTION statement, 5-8

trigger

 

 

 

 

disabled, definition,

9-28

 

enabled, definition,

9-28

 

triggering statement, definition, 9-5

triggers

 

 

 

 

about,

7-20

 

 

 

accessing column values,

9-17

AFTER,

9-6, 9-17, 9-33, 9-35

triggers (continued)

 

 

 

 

 

auditing with,

9-32, 9-33

 

BEFORE,

 

9-6, 9-17, 9-45, 9-46

body,

9-15, 9-19, 9-20, 9-22

check constraints,

9-43, 9-45

client events,

10-8

 

 

 

 

column list in UPDATE,

9-6, 9-20

compiled,

9-26

 

 

 

 

 

conditional predicates,

9-15, 9-19

creating,

9-2, 9-21, 9-26

 

 

data access restrictions,

9-45

debugging,

 

9-28

 

 

 

 

designing,

9-2

 

 

 

 

 

disabling,

9-28, 9-29

 

 

 

distributed query creation,

7-38

enabling,

 

9-28

 

 

 

 

 

error conditions and exceptions, 9-20

events,

9-5

 

 

 

 

 

 

examples,

9-31 to 9-47

 

 

firing,

9-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FOR EACH ROW clause,

9-13

generating derived column values, 9-46

illegal SQL statements,

9-22

INSTEAD OF triggers,

9-8

integrity constraints vs.,

9-2, 9-37

listing information about,

9-29

modifying,

 

9-28

 

 

 

 

multiple same type,

 

9-7

 

mutating tables and,

9-22

 

naming,

9-4

 

 

 

 

 

package variables and,

9-7

privileges,

9-26

 

 

 

 

to drop,

 

9-28

 

 

 

 

procedures and,

9-22

 

 

recompiling,

9-27

 

 

 

 

REFERENCING option,

9-19

referential integrity and,

9-38 to 9-42

remote dependencies and,

9-22

remote exceptions,

9-20

 

resource manager events,

10-7

restrictions,

9-14, 9-21

 

 

row,

9-13

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

row evaluation order,

9-7

 

scan order,

 

9-7

 

 

 

 

 

stored,

9-26

 

 

 

 

 

 

Index-12

triggers (continued) system triggers, 9-4

on DATABASE, 9-4 on SCHEMA, 9-4

trigger evaluation order, 9-7

use of LONG and LONG RAW datatypes, 9-22

username reported in,

9-25

WHEN clause,

9-14

 

TRUNC function,

2-21

 

TRUST keyword,

7-61

 

type attribute, PL/SQL,

1-5

U

undo data,

15-2

 

 

 

 

 

UNDO_MANAGEMENT configuration

parameter,

15-4

 

 

 

 

UNDO_RETENTION configuration

parameter,

15-4

 

 

 

 

UNDO_TABLESPACE configuration

parameter,

15-4

 

 

 

 

unhandled exceptions,

7-38

 

 

UNIQUE key constraints

 

 

combining with NOT NULL constraint, 3-5

composite keys and nulls,

3-7

 

disabling,

3-21

 

 

 

 

enabling,

3-20

 

 

 

 

PRIMARY KEY constraint vs.,

3-6

when to use,

3-6

 

 

 

 

updatable view, definition, 9-8

 

UPDATE statement

 

 

 

 

column values and triggers,

9-17

data consistency,

5-10

 

 

triggers and,

9-6, 9-20

 

 

triggers for referential integrity,

9-40, 9-41

update, distributed, definition,

7-49

UPPER function,

4-9

 

 

 

URLs, 13-16

 

 

 

 

 

UROWID datatype,

2-8

 

 

USER function,

3-5

 

 

 

 

user locks, requesting,

5-17

 

 

USER_ERRORS view, debugging stored

procedures,

7-35

 

 

 

USER_SOURCE view,

7-35

 

 

user-defined errors,

7-35, 7-37

 

usernames, as reported in a trigger, 9-25 UTL_HTTP package, 13-16 UTL_INADDR package, 13-16 UTL_SMTP package, 13-15

UTL_TCP package, 13-16 UTLLOCKT.SQL script, 5-19

V

VARCHAR datatype, See VARCHAR2 datatype

VARCHAR2 datatype, 2-4, 2-8

 

 

column length, 2-9

 

 

VBScript, translating to PSP, 13-20

 

 

VERSIONS_ENDSCN pseudocolumn,

15-11

VERSIONS_ENDTIME pseudocolumn,

15-11

VERSIONS_OPERATION pseudocolumn,

15-11

VERSIONS_STARTSCN pseudocolumn,

 

15-11

VERSIONS_STARTTIME pseudocolumn,

15-11

VERSIONS_XID pseudocolumn, 15-11

 

 

views

containing expressions, 9-9 FLASHBACK_TRANSACTION_QUERY, 15-12 inherently modifiable, 9-9

modifiable, 9-9 pseudocolumns, 9-9

W

Web pages, dynamic, 13-19 WHEN clause, 9-14

cannot contain PL/SQL expressions, 9-14 correlation names, 9-17

examples, 9-2, 9-13, 9-38

EXCEPTION examples,

9-20, 9-38, 9-43, 9-45

WITH CONTEXT clause,

8-33

WNDS argument,

7-60

 

WNPS argument,

7-60

 

wrapper to hide PL/SQL code, 7-20

X

X locks, LOCK TABLE statement, 5-15 XA library, 16-1 to 16-36

xa_open string, 16-9

Index-13

XML

 

as document type for PSP file,

13-22

searching with Oracle9i Text,

2-34

XML data, representing, 2-47

 

X/Open distributed transaction processing architecture, 16-2

Y

year 2000, 2-25

Z

zero values, 2-14

Index-14

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