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8

Calling External Procedures

In situations where a particular language does not provide the features you need, or when you want to reuse existing code written in another language, you can use code written in some other language by calling external procedures.

This chapter discusses the following topics:

Overview of Multi-Language Programs

What Is an External Procedure?

Overview of The Call Specification for External Procedures

Loading External Procedures

Publishing External Procedures

Publishing Java Class Methods

Publishing External C Procedures

Locations of Call Specifications

Passing Parameters to External C Procedures with Call Specifications

Executing External Procedures with the CALL Statement

Handling Errors and Exceptions in Multi-Language Programs

Using Service Procedures with External C Procedures

Doing Callbacks with External C Procedures

Calling External Procedures 8-1

Overview of Multi-Language Programs

Overview of Multi-Language Programs

Oracle Database lets you work in different languages:

PL/SQL, as described in the PL/SQL User's Guide and Reference

C, by means of the Oracle Call Interface (OCI), as described in the Oracle Call Interface Programmer's Guide

C or C++, by means of the Pro*C/C++ precompiler, as described in the

Pro*C/C++ Programmer's Guide

COBOL, by means of the Pro*COBOL precompiler, as described in the

Pro*COBOL Programmer's Guide

Visual Basic, by means of Oracle Objects for OLE (OO4O), as described in Oracle Objects for OLE Developer's Guide.

Java, by means of the JDBC Application Programmers Interface (API). See Oracle Database Java Developer's Guide.

How should you choose between these different implementation possibilities? Each of these languages offers different advantages: ease of use, the availability of programmers with specific expertise, the need for portability, and the existence of legacy code are powerful determinants.

The choice may narrow depending on how your application needs to work with Oracle Database:

PL/SQL is a powerful development tool, specialized for SQL transaction processing.

Some computation-intensive tasks are executed most efficiently in a lower level language, such as C.

The need for portability, together with the need for security, may influence you to select Java.

Most significantly, from the point of view of performance, you should note that only PL/SQL and Java methods run within the address space of the server. C/C++ methods are dispatched as external procedures, and run on the server machine but outside the address space of the database server. Pro*COBOL and Pro*C are precompilers, and Visual Basic accesses Oracle Database through the OCI, which is implemented in C.

Taking all these factors into account suggests that there may be a number of situations in which you may need to implement your application in more than one language. For instance, the introduction of Java running within the address space of

8-2 Oracle Database Application Developer's Guide - Fundamentals

What Is an External Procedure?

the server suggest that you may want to import existing Java applications into the database, and then leverage this technology by calling Java functions from PL/SQL and SQL.

PL/SQL external procedures allow you to write C function calls as PL/SQL bodies. These C functions are callable directly from PL/SQL, and from SQL through PL/SQL procedure calls. The database provides a special-purpose interface, the call specification, that lets you call external procedures from other languages. While this service is designed for intercommunication between SQL, PL/SQL, C, and Java, it is accessible from any base language that can call these languages. For example, your procedure can be written in a language other than Java or C and still be usable by SQL or PL/SQL, as long as your procedure is callable by C. Therefore, if you have a candidate C++ procedure, you would use a C++ extern "C" statement in that procedure to make it callable by C.

This means that the strengths and capabilities of different languages are available to you, regardless of your programmatic environment. You are not restricted to one language with its inherent limitations. External procedures promote reusability and modularity because you can deploy specific languages for specific purposes.

What Is an External Procedure?

An external procedure, also sometimes referred to as an external routine, is a procedure stored in a dynamic link library (DLL), or libunit in the case of a Java class method. You register the procedure with the base language, and then call it to perform special-purpose processing.

For instance, when you work in PL/SQL, the language loads the library dynamically at runtime, and then calls the procedure as if it were a PL/SQL subprogram. These procedures participate fully in the current transaction and can call back to the database to perform SQL operations.

The procedures are loaded only when necessary, so memory is conserved. Because the decoupling of the call specification from its implementation body means that the procedures can be enhanced without affecting the calling programs.

External procedures let you:

Isolate execution of client applications and processes from the database instance to ensure that any problems on the client side do not adversely impact the database.

Move computation-bound programs from client to server where they execute faster (because they avoid the round-trips of network communication)

Calling External Procedures 8-3

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