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  1. Translate the words given in the brackets.

  1. Waves of беженцев swept across Europe in the early twentieth century.

  2. The post-World War One political перестройка of territories that occurred after the four great European empires collapsed made many thousands homeless.

  3. The Second World War brought another массовое бегство as intensified aerial bombardment left massive numbers homeless.

  4. It is cпорный вопрос which ethnic group is the cleverer.

  5. The way people behave придавать особое значение many of the differences we see between cultures.

  6. We need to better understand разнообразие of peoples, their cultures and national peculiarities in order to promote mutual understanding.

  7. It’s very important to maintain one’s культурная подлинность but no nation can afford cultural isolation.

Appendix supplementary reading unit I

T E X T 1

We’re all middle class now

Here we go again. “I’m middle class,” says John Prescott. “No, you’re not” responds his dad, and off we all go asking each other, “What are you?”

It ‘s a tricky question because there is no right answer. Karl Marx, never the snappiest of writers, dreamed up relationship to the means of production’s as the key factor. So an engineer earning more than 40,000 a year would be working class because he doesn’t own the company he works for – he is just a prole like the rest of us.

It was left to another German, Max Weber, to point out that how people identify themselves, and how others see them, is as important as wealth or ownership.

Teachers have always earned a pittance but are regarded as middle class because they are “educated”. It is lack of formal education that identifies plumbers as working class although some earn as much as any City blue-blood.

Before the 1994 Education Act it was pretty straightforward. There was the aristocracy, the middle class and the workers. There were exceptions: bright working-class boys (girls rarely got a look-in) who won scholarships; self-made entrepreneurs who emigrated to suburbia and modified their vowel sounds.

The end of the war changed all that. Clever working-class boys and girls took the 11-plus and there was a huge expansion in white-collar employment. By the 1980s, higher and further education had exploded and one in every three 16- to 19-year-old enrolled.

Back in the 1960s, John Cleese, Dudley Moore and Ronnie Barker parodied class on black-and-white television. Cleese with a bowler, Moore a flat cap and Barker a middle-class trilby. They were poking fun at the old certainties, the old snobberies.

Twenty years on and Margaret Thatcher began selling off council houses. After job and income, home ownership had always been a sure sign of class. Thatcher’s message was crystal clear – you too can be middle class. The willingness of the building societies to lend and extended this trend.

But the Thatcher years saw the return of snobbery. It never went away completely but, for a long period, it was not respectable.

It is impossible to define class. Even the statisticians of the Office of Population, Censuses and Surveys have given up. It is abandoning the famous A, B, C, D categories used by market researchers and trying to devise a completely new scale – so far without success.

OPCS could try sporting affiliations. Twenty years ago, belonging to a golf club was a guarantee of middle-class status, now it’s the favourite sport of taxi-drivers. Soccer was the preserve of the Sunreading classes, today you can’t get in at Arsenal without showing your Guardian. Cricket, once the preserve of the blazer brigade, has been colonised by the hooligans no longer welcome on the soccer terrace. So what are you? And does it matter?

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