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Human Anatomy.doc
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Vocabulary – 3

Study Vocabulary – 3 and then do exercise 4.

genetically inherited proteins

генетично успадковані білки

recessive

рецесивний

immune response

імунна відповідь

universal donors

універсальні донори

blood grouping systems

системи груп крові

transfusion reactions

трансфузійні реакції

codominant

кодомінантний

Exercise 4. Fill in the gaps and translate the text.

blood grouping systems

codominant

Immune response

recessive

Rh factor

Rh-negative

Rh-positive

transfusion reactions

universal donors

Blood Types

Blood is typed or classified according to the different genetically inherited proteins on the surface of red blood cells and antibodies in the plasma. These antigens affect the ability of the red blood cells to provoke an (1) ________. More than 20 groups of these proteins have now been identified, but the most familiar are the AB0 and Rh blood groups.

There are two main (2) ________: the AB0 system and the rhesus system.

In the AB0 system, the presence or absence of 2 types of antigen (named A and B) on the surface of the red blood cells determine whether a person’s blood group is A, B, AB (which has both A and B), or 0 (which has neither A nor B). People with the A antigen (group A) have anti-B antibodies; people with the B antigen (group B) have anti-A antibodies; those with both antigens (blood group AB) have neither; and those with neither antigen (group 0) have both. A and B are considered to be (3) ________, which means a child inheriting an A blood type from the mother and a B blood type from the father will most likely have an AB blood type. Only two (4) ________ 0 blood type genes from both parents will result in a child having an O blood type. People with type 0 blood are called (5) ________, because their blood can be given to people with any of the AB0 types.

Rh blood group system classifies blood groups according to the presence or absence of the Rh antigen, often called the (6) ________, on the cell membranes of the red blood cells. People with this factor are (7) ________; those without it are (8) ________. The importance of the Rh group relates mainly to pregnancy in Rh-negative women, since, if the baby is Rh positive, the mother may form antibodies against the baby’s blood.

In giving blood transfusions, it is important to use blood that is the same type as the recipient’s blood or a type to which the recipient will not show an immune reaction. Mismatches with the AB0 and Rh blood types are responsible for the most serious, sometimes life-threatening, (9) ________.

Vocabulary – 4

Study Vocabulary – 4 and then do exercise 5.

blood incompatibility

несумісність крові

low-albumin disorder

гіпоальбумінемія

blood typing

проба на сумісність

methods of fractionating

методи фракціювання крові

exchange transfusion

замінне переливання крові

packed red blood cells

еритроцитарна маса

fibrinogen

фібриноген

platelet deficiency

дефіцит тромбоцитів

fresh-frozen plasma

свіжозаморожена плпзма

serum albumin

серумальбумін

gastrointestinal bleeding

внутрішня кровотеча

trauma

травма

hemorrhage

кровотеча

washed red cells

відмиті еритроцити

hereditary bleeding disorders

спадкові порушення згортання крові

white-cell count

лейкоцитарна формула

immune globulin

імуноглобулін

Exercise 5. Translate the following text.

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