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Human Anatomy.doc
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Vital Functions of the Circulatory System

The circulatory system performs a lot of vital functions. They are as follows:

Respiration. The red blood cells contain a compound called haemoglobin that can carry oxygen and transport it to the body parts via circulation and carries carbon dioxide back to the lungs. During this process the blood follows two different routes through the heart called systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation to separate the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood.

Nutrition. The circulatory system carries digested food substances to the cells for providing energy to the body and also for storage. These nutrients enter the blood stream through the thin walls of the intestines into the cappilaries and are carried to the liver. The liver removes some nutrients and stores the rest for use later. The blood that leaves the liver contains nutrients that the cells use for energy production.

Carrier of hormones. The blood also transports hormones that are produced by various glands throughout the body. These hormones then cause various changes in the body involving growth and reproduction.

Removal of wastes. The circulatory system also helps the body to dispose off wastes that would otherwise get accumulated. The wastes include carbon dioxide, ammonia, salts, etc. The liver converts ammonia and various other useless substances that enter through the digestive system and converts them into water soluble substances that are then carried by the blood to the kidneys for removal.

Protection from diseases. The white blood cells engulf and destroy bacteria, viruses and other harmful substances that enter the body. The platelets in the blood help in clotting of the blood in injuries so that an excess of blood is not lost.

Maintaining body temperature. Blood circulation maintains the body temperature and keeps it stable by absorbing the heat coming from the cell’s energy production.

Exercise 6. Translate into English.

Артеріальний стовбур; артерія; вазоконстрикція; венула; видаляти в оточуєче середовище; вливатися в артерії та судини; внутрішня оболонка; впливати на тиск крові; дрібна артерія; ембріон; зовнішня оболонка; капілярні судини; мережа судин; надхотити в кров; нести кров від серця; під великим тиском; післякапілярна венула; розтягуватися під тиском.

Exercise 7. Translate into Ukrainian.

Arterial vessel; alter blood flow; arteriole; blood gases; capillary; dispose off wastes; elastic fibers; endothelial layer; energy production; nerve terminal; one-way valve; umbilical vein; vascular system; vasodilation; vein; water soluble substances.

Glossary English-Ukrainian

ammonia аміак

arterial trunk артеріальний стовбур

arterial vessel артеріальна судина

arteriole артеріола

artery артерія

bacterium (pl bacteria) бактерія

blood gase газ крові

capillary vessel капілярна судина

capillary капіляр

elastic fiber еластичне волокно

endothelial layer ендотемальна оболонка

fetus ембріон

nerve terminal нервове закінчення

postcapillary venule післякапілярна венула

pulmonary circulation легеневе коло кровообігу

systemic circulation велике коло кровообігу

umbilical vein пупкова вена

vascular system судинна система

vasoconstriction вазоконстрикція

vasodilation вазодилатація

vein вена

venule венула

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