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Vocabulary – 3

Study Vocabulary – 3 and then do exercise 4.

acceptance

приживляємість

homologous graft

алотрансплан­тати

allograft

алотрансплан­тат

homologous transplantation

гомотрансплан­тація

autologous transplantation

аутотрансплан­тація

human leucocyteantigen panels

панелі антигенів лейкоцитів людини

cadaver

посмертний донор

living unrelated person

живий неспорід­нений донор

failing organ

пошкоджений орган

suppression

імуносупресія

genetically close parent

близький генетичний родич першої лінії спорідненості

xenotransplant

ксенотрансплан­тат

genetically identical twin

генетично ідентичний однояйцевий близнюк

xenotransplanta­tion

ксенотрансплан­тація

graft

трансплантат

Exercise 4. Fill in the gaps and translate the text.

acceptance

antigens

donor organs

failing organ

grafted tissue

monitoring and support

recipient human

rejection

suppression

Transplantation

Transplantation (grafting) is the replacement of a (1) ________ or tissue by a functioning one.

Transplantation may be from the same person (autologous), from the same species (homologous – the allograft can come from a genetically identical twin, genetically close parent or sibling, living unrelated person, or cadaver) or from a different species (xenotransplant).

Human tissues carry highly specific (2) ________, which cause the immune system to react to "foreign" materials. Grafts of a person’s own tissue (such as skin grafts) are therefore well tolerated. Homologous grafts are plagued by attempted (3) ________ by the (4) ________. The biological acceptability of the graft is measured by tissue typing of the donor and recipient using the human leucocyte antigen, or HLA, panels. The closer the match between the donor and the recipient, the greater the chance of graft (5) ________ and function. Xenotransplantation is as yet entirely experimental because of tissue rejection and the possibility of transmitting animal diseases to the human recipient.

Organ transplantation has two sets of problems. The first relate to the recipient: the magnitude of the procedure and the intricacies of the surgical technique, the avoidance of rejection (acute or chronic) of the (6) ________ because of antigens in the tissue, and temporary and long-term (7) ________ of the recipient’s immune processes, with resulting infections and cancers. The second set of problems relates to the graft itself: the source of the graft and its collection, preservation, and transport to the recipient. Associated problems are ethical and economic, including the expense of the procedure and the cost of long-term (8) ________ of the patient.

Many of the technical problems associated with transplantation are gradually being overcome. Obtaining (9) ________ and distributing them equitably remain critical problems.

Transplantation is well established for skin, teeth, bone, blood, bone marrow, cornea, heart, kidney, liver, and to a lesser extent for the lung, pancreas, and intestines. On occasion two transplants are combined, such as heart and lung or pancreas and kidney.

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