Upload Опубликованный материал нарушает ваши авторские права? Сообщите нам.
Вуз: Предмет: Файл:
500.22 Кб

49 ) English language chronology and highlights or the british history

The history of the English language started with the arrival of the Germanic tribes in the 5th century AD: the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes. By the beginning of the 7th century several Germanic kingdoms were formed in Britain, which waged a constant struggle against one another for predominance over the country. At the beginning of the 9th century Wessex became the strongest state. Being alike in speech and customs Germanic tribes gradually merged into one people called Anglo-Saxons. The dialect of the Angles, the English, became the principal language of the country, which developed into what we now call Old English.

in 1066 Williaam the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy, invaded conquered England. The new conquerors brought Anglo-Norman, a northern dialect of Old French as the language of the ruling classes in England, displacing Old English. In 1204 AD. King John lost the province of Normandy to the King of France. This began a process where the Norman nobles of England became increasingly separated from their French cousins., and consequently the nobility adopted a modified English as their native tongue. This mixture of the two languages came to be known as Middle English.

From 1154 until 1485 England was ruled by Plantagenet dynasty. At the end of the Plantagenet period broke out the Wars of Roses. The chief result of Wars of Roses was an increase in the power of the Crown, and the reunion of the two rival houses by Henry VII, the founder of Tudor dynasty. Virtually the beginning of the reign of Tudor dynasty coincides with the new period in the history of English - Early Modern English (1500-1800)

Two major factors influenced the language development and served to separate Middle and Modern English. The first was the Great Vowel Shift. The second was the introduction of the printing press. Spelling and grammar became fixed, and the dialect of London, where most publishing houses were, became the standard. In 1604 the first English dictionary was published. From the 16th century the British had contact with many peoples from around the world.

The main difference between Early Modern English and Late Mcdem English is vocabulary.

50. English as Lingua Franca for the Modern World. Standard English & Received Pronunciation

About 400 years ago English didn’t have an important role as a foreign or 2nd l-ge anywhere & it was spoken like a 1st l-ge in a very small area of the globe. During the course of 1600s English was transported beyond the British Isles by traders, soldiers & settlers as a result of colonization. Now English has official status in over 60 countries. Brai Kachru (1992): 1) the inner-circle English refers to the traditional historical & socio-linguistic basis of English in the areas where it is a primary l-ge (UK, Ireland, Canada, the USA, Australia, New Zeland) – 375 mln/7% of world population; 2) the outer-circle English comprises regions colonized by Britain, such as India, Singapore & Nigeria – 2,5 bln/49%; 3) the expanding-circle English involves nations which recognize the importance of English as an international l-ge, but they do not have the history of colonization, nor does English have official status in their countries. In this area English is mostly used as a foreign l-ge. ≈150mln pupils learn English. English as a lingua franca is usually based on the standards of the American English & can be defined as additionally acquired l-ge system which serves as a common means of communication.

The most influential factor in the rise of Standard English was the importance of London as the capital of the country. SE is taken to be the variety of English most widely accepted & understood. Linguists agree on 3 things: 1) SE is most easily identified in print; 2) standard forms are used by most presenters of news on most English radio & TV networks; 3) use of SE relates to social class & level of education. Often considered to match the average level of achievement of students who finished secondary education. Linguists believe that the term “standard” can be applied to grammar, vocabulary & writing, but not accent. Received pronunciation is a type of pronunciation which is regarded as correct & proper. For the accent usually associated with Br. Engl., the term RP is known as the BBC accent (Queen’s, Oxford, public school accent, talking proper, talking posh). Its advanced form is sometimes called “la-di-dah” or “a cut-glass accent”. It has always been a minority accent, spoken by 3-4% of British population (high-class accent). RP evolved from the accent established in England by the 17th century. It is a non-rhotic accent that includes the linking/intrusive /r/ (law/r & order). In recent years it became less monolithic both phonetically & socially, i.e. phoneticians distinguish accents of RP & generation gap accent in RP.

Соседние файлы в предмете [НЕСОРТИРОВАННОЕ]