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10. Aspects of Translator Reliability

Translation users need to be able to rely on translations & they need to be able to trust the translator. There are several aspects of translator reliability:

  1. textual reliability. Types of text reliability:

  • literalism – the T follows the original word-for-word or as close to that ideal as possible;

  • foreignism – the T reads fairly fluently but has a slight alien touch; one can tell reading it that it is a T not an original;

  • fluency – the T is readable for the TL reader as to seem like an original in the TL;

  • summary – the T covers the main points of the original;

  • commentary – the T unfolds the hidden complexities of the original, exploring implications that remain unstated of half-stated in the original;

  • summary commentary – the T summarizes some passages briefly while commenting closely on others;

  • adaptation – the T recasts the original so as to have the desired impact on the audience, i.e. substantially different from that of the original;

  • inscription – the T recasts the original so as to hide its meaning or message from 1 group while still making it accessible to another group which possesses the key.

  1. translator reliability can be:

  • with regard to the text; attention to detail, sensitivity to the user’s needs, research, checking;

  • with regard to the client; versatility – the range of interests is huge & translator must be ready to translate everything; promises – realistic promises as to delivery dates; friendliness; confidentiality;

  • with regard to technology; hardware & software.

The T must also be timely in the sense of not arriving past the time f its usefulness & value.

11. Transformations in Translation

Transformation is any change of the source text at any level (syntactic, semantic, lexical)

1. Lexical transformations are:

- differentiation of meaning (concretization) – is such a transformation which presupposes the word of a broader semantics being substituted for a word with narrower semantics (meal – їжа, обід, вечеря).

- generalization of meaning – is such a transformation which presupposes the word of a narrower semantics being substituted by a word with a broader semantics (e.g. the American society was the ideal vehicle for industrialization)

-semantic development of meaning, consists in using contextual correspondence instead of dictionary ones as a logical result of the development of their notion (e.g. additional evidence comes from (можна отримати) comparative studies…)

- transcription- A representation of speech sounds in phonetic symbols.

- transliteration- the spelling of a word in one language with the alphabet of another language.

- сomplete transformation is used when it is necessary to understand the meaning of the whole utterance and render it by means of words of target language, sometimes very distant from the meaning of the source text ( Help yourself please – Пригощайтесь)

2. Grammatical transformations are:

- addition is intended for a compensation of structural elements implicitly present in the source text or paradigm forms missing in target l-ge (e.g. peer- bounded goods – товари для певної категорії)

- replacement is any change in the target text on morphological, syntactic and lexical levels of the language when the elements of certain paradigms are replaced by different elements of the target ones (e.g. he used to come to NY each spring – Він зазвичай приїжджав до Нью Йорка кожної весни)

Such basic types of replacement are observed in Engl – Ukr translation:

1. Replacement of nouns, verb tenses, voice paradigm

2. Replacement of parts of speech

3. Antonymic translation

- omission is the reduction of the elements of the source text considered redundant from the viewpoint of the target l-ge structural patterns and stylistics ( e.g. Summer rains in FL may be violent while they last – Влітку у Флориді бувають сильні дощі).

- partitioning is either replacing in translation of a source sentence by 2 or more target ones or converting a simple sentence into a compound or complex target one:

a) inner partitioning, when a simple sentence is changed into compound

b) outer partitioning, when 1 sentence is substituted by more sentences

c) integration, implies combining 2 or more source sentences into 1 target sentence.

- transposition is a change of the word order in the target text as compared to the source text.

3. Lexico-grammatical transformations are:

- antonymic translation is rendering of Engl words and statements by means of opposite antonymic words and statements (e.g. mind your own business – Не втручайся)

a) negation – when a word or word combination without negative seme (сема) or suffix in its semantic structure is substituted for a word with negative suffix or seme (to continue – НЕ зупинятись)

b) affirmation – when a word with a negative seme or prefix is substitutied with a word without a negative seme or prefix (e.g. unabolished – чинний)

c) annulment of the 2 negative components available in the source text units (e.g. not impossible – можливий)

- metonymic translation is similar to meaning extention in which 1 word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely connected (e.g. Moscow agreed to sign the peace treating – Уряд Росії погодився підписати мирний договір)

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