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22.Methodology of tefl: basic categories and aims.

The methodology of TEFL seems to embody such basic categories on which there is general agreement among those who have studied the subject: methods, principles, techniques, aims and means of instruction.

There is no unanimity regarding the term method either. In G. Rogova's et al. view "method is a technological operation, structural and functional component of the teacher's and learner's activity, realized in techniques and principles of instruction. A method is a model of instruction based on definite theoretical provisions, principle, techniques and aims of instruction

A method is also a specific set of teaching techniques and materials generally backed by stated principles

A method determines what and how much is taught (selection), the order in which it is taught (gradation), and how the meaning and form are conveyed (presentation). Since presentation, drill and repetition may also be the concern of the teacher, the analysis of the teaching/leaning process must first determine how much is done by the method and how much by the teacher.

Aim is a direction or guidance to establish a course or procedure to be followed. The teacher should formulate long-term goals, interim aims and short-term objectives. What changes he can bring about in his pupils at the end of the week, month, year, course, and each particular lesson. Hence, aims are planned results for pupils in learning a FL. The aims are stipulated by the syllabus and other official directives. They are: practical, instructional, educational and developing (formative).

Practical aims cover habits and skills which pupils acquire in using a foreign language. A habit is an automatic response to specific situations, acquired normally as a result of repetition and learning.

A skill is a combination of useful habits serving a definite purpose and requiring application of certain knowledge.

Instructional aims develop the pupils’ mental capacities and intelligence in the process of FLL (foreign language learning).

Educational aims help the pupils extend their knowledge of the world in which they live.

Formative or developing aims help develop in learners sensual perception, motor, kinaesthetic, emotional and motivating spheres.

Principles are basic underlying theoretical provisions which determine the choice of methods, techniques and other means of instruction.

Technique in the methodology of TEFL is the manner of presentation, demonstration, consolidation and repetition.

Means is something by the use or help of which a desired goal is attained or made more likely.

24 Principles and content of FLT

The methodology of FLT is based on fundamental principles of didactics:- the principle of conscious approach;- communicative approach;- differentiated and integrated instruction;- activity;- visuality;- accessibility and durability;- individualization;- consecutiveness;- systematicness;heuristics, etc.

The Principle of Conscious Approach is one of the leading principles because conscious learning plays an important role in language acquisition and helps to understand new concepts and express new ideas in the target language.This principle also implies comprehension of linguistic phenomena by the learner through the medium of vernacular and the arrangement in sentence patterns graded in difficulties with the emphasis on some essential points.

-The Principle of Differentiated and Integrated InstructionEvery type of speech activity is characterized by its own set of grammar structures, rules and lexical material. Consequently, we should differentiate between teaching speaking and writing; teaching listening comprehension and speaking; teaching reading and writing; teaching prepared and unprepared speech, etc. The realization of this principle is reflected in Instructional Methodological Sets (IMS) which furnish "software" for each type of activity. To acquire skills in reading, readers and periodicals are used. To acquire grammar skills - books on grammar, reference guidebooks and guides to patterns and usage are recommended..

Visuality as applied in FLT is of two kinds:

1. material or ostensive, consisting of the demonstration of objects and actions;

2. graphic, consisting of pictures, tables, diagrams, charts, etc.

The Principle of AccessibilityIn FLT this principle is realized in conformity with teaching strategies to the pupils' capacities so that they don't experience insurmountable difficulties. The teaching materials should meet requirements of linguistic and psychological factors: 1. correspond to the age and mental abilities of the learners; be neither difficult nor easy;2. be properly graded;3. be heuristic in form and structure;4. be presented in such a way that the pupils have to solve one problem at a time.graded in difficulty.

-The Principle of Durability.This principle assumes particular importance in FLT because it is largely concerned with a constant growth of language and speech units, words, word-combinations, idioms, clich?s which are to be stored and retained in the pupils' memory so that the learners could use them in listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing..

The Principle of Individualization-This principle takes into account individual peculiarities of the learner, his background knowledge, what he knows, his spheres of interest, etc., i.e. cognitive styles.

Heuristics restores and stimulates curiosity, encourages students to work in accordance with their interests and set out for themselves goals that appeal to them. It provides students with new tasks and thereby “feeds” their interests. It lets students participate in designing new tasks, provides interactive situations and lets students evaluate themselves.

One of the essential categories of FLT is the content or what to teach. It is impossible to determine the content of FLT without referring to linguistics - a science that deals with the study of languages as a definite system of codes. Thus, linguistics describes the standard use of the language, a set of rules, which cover this use. It also studies the usage, i.e. the way people use words and expressions in speaking and writing, as well as stylistic means, phonological, morphological, syntactical and lexical items. the first component of the content of FLT is the linguistic one which includes language material (phonetical, grammatical, and lexical minima) and speech material (utterances of different lengths) to be used in real acts of communication.

The selection of linguistic material, the so-called minimum vocabulary, minimum grammar is circumscribed by the syllabus for secondary schools.

The second component of "what to teach" is a psychological one is a formation of habits and skills to use a FL for communicative purposes.

The third component of "what to teach" is a methodological one, i.e. rational approaches to FLT: the pupils should be taught how to learn a FL, how to work on the subject to achieve the ultimate goals. Some methodologists think that the content of FLT includes: a) exercises of different types; b) texts for oral and written work; c) laboratory exercises; d) topical selection of material

What the learners need are useful ideas, suggestions, explanations, demonstrations and examples of learning strategies which are consistent with current achievements in the field of modern language teaching.

Thus, an understanding of current theories of language learning and the achievement of related sciences give all grounds to define the content of FLT in the following terms:

1) linguistic component, covering language and speech material;

2) psychological component, which includes formation of habits and skills which enable the learners to use them for communicative purposes;

3) methodological component that is related to techniques and procedures derived from application of didactic principles.

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