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Instructions

  • Determine the purpose of your essay. Scientific essays can be written with different goals in mind. Your purpose may be to answer an essay question, explain the findings of a lab experiment or explore research and experiments conducted by others.

  • Organize your writing with an outline. Scientific essays usually follow a different pattern than other essays. Sections to include are the title, list of authors, abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion and references.

  • Include in the list of authors the names of everyone who contributed in some way to the experiments you performed in your research. Also include the names of anyone else who contributed to the drafting of your report.

  • Save the writing of your abstract until the end. This is a short summary of about 250 words.

  • Describe any experiments you conducted in your research in the materials and methods section of your essay. Do not include findings here.

  • State the findings of your research in the results section. This is an objective review of what took place in the experiment. This does not include interpretation.

  • Give your interpretation of the findings in the next section, the discussion, and communicate the meaning and significance of what happened in your research.

  • Include only reputable sources in your references. Your research should consist of academic and scientific journals. Credible sources are vital to the credibility of your essay.

A scientific article This is the most important type of paper. It provides new information based on original research. This category of paper is usually prospective and is supported by in-depth statistical analysis. The conclusions should be supported by the data provided in the results. A scientific article has a standardized structure, which varies only slightly in different subjects. Ultimately, it is not the format that is important, but what lies behind it - the content. However, several key formatting requirements need to be met:

  1. The title attracts readers' attention and informs them about the contents of the article. Titles are distinguished into three main types: declarative titles (state the main conclusion), descriptive titles (describe a paper's content), and interrogative titles (challenge readers with a question that is answered in the text). Some journals indicate, in their instructions to authors, the type (and length) of permitted titles.

  2. The names and affiliations of all authors are given. In the wake of some scientific misconductcases, publishers often require that all co-authors know and agree on the content of the article.

  3. An abstractsummarizes the work (in a single paragraph or in several short paragraphs) and is intended to represent the article in bibliographic databases and to furnishsubject metadatafor indexing services.

  4. The content should be presented in the context of previous scientific investigations, by citation of relevant documents in the existing literature, usually in a section called an "Introduction".

  5. Empirical techniques, laid out in a section usually called "Materials and Methods", should be described in such a way that a subsequent scientist, with appropriate knowledge of and experience in the relevant field, should be able to repeat the observations and know whether he or she has obtained the same result. This naturally varies between subjects, and does not apply to mathematics and related subjects.

  6. Similarly, the results of the investigation, in a section usually called "Results", data should be presented in tabular or graphic form (image,chart,schematic,diagramordrawing). These display elements should be accompanied by a caption and discussed in the text of the article.

  7. Interpretation of the meaning of the results is usually addressed in a "Discussion" or "Conclusion" section. The conclusions drawn should be based on the new empirical results while taking consideration prior knowledge, in such a way that any reader with knowledge of the field can follow the argument and confirm that the conclusions are sound. That is, acceptance of the conclusions must not depend on personal authority,rhetorical skill, orfaith.

  8. Finally, a "References" or "Literature Cited" section lists the sources cited by the authors in the format required by the journal.

A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings. In some contexts, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used for part of a bachelor's or master's course, while "dissertation" is normally applied to a doctorate, while in other contexts, the reverse is true. Dissertations and theses may be considered as grey literature.

The required complexity and/or quality of research of a thesis or dissertation can vary by country, university and/or program, therefore, the required minimum study period may vary significantly in duration.

A thesis (or dissertation) may be arranged as a thesis by publication or a monograph, with or without appended papers respectively. Dissertations normally report on a research project or study, or an extended analysis of a topic. The structure of the thesis or dissertation explains the purpose, the previous research literature which impinges on the topic of the study, the methods used and the findings of the project. Most world universities use a multiple chapter format :

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