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VII.Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:

1. What does the term "Global warming" mean?

2. What does an analysis of temperature records show?

3. What is the result of extremely complex interactions among the atmosphere?

4. What role does mass media play?

5. What can one hear on the radio?

6. What is the basic hitch with today's electromobile?

7. What are designs that will help overcome the problem of the time lost in recharging the accumulators?

VIII.Составьте аннотацию к тексту (2-3 предложения).

IX.Составьте реферат текста (10-15 предложений).

X. Составьте план текста и перескажите текст.

Вариант № 20

I.Прочитайте и переведите текст:

Christmas

The word "Christmas" is derived from the words "Christ's Mass" - the celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ. But although Christmas is undoubtedly a Christian celebration, it is also true to say that it is an unusual combination of pagan and Christian festivities.

A Christmas tree stands in everybody's living room at Christmas, shining its good cheer around the room. Sitting on the very top of the tree is a silver star surrounded by tiny lights. All the branches are hung with silver bells, tinsel and sparkling lights. Around the base of the tree lie the gifts and toys wrapped up in bright colourful paper.

The Christmas tree has spread its influence around the world. In fact America adopted it before it found its way to England early in Queen Victoria's reign. Now every Christmas British people are sent a huge fir tree from Norway which stands in Trafalgar Square, in the centre of London, shining down on all the people who gather on Christmas Eve.

In pre-Christian times evergreens, trees that remain green throughout the year, were worshiped in Northern Europe as symbols of eternal life. Mistletoe, hung up as a Christmas decoration is a symbol of love and reconciliation.

Holly, a well-known Christmas decoration today, has Christian associations. In Norwegian, Swedish and Danish, holly is known as "Christ's thorns", the legend being that Christ wore a crown of holly thorns before his death. Some people have seen associations between the word "holly" and "holy".

Giving presents goes back to Roman Saturnalia when good luck gifts of fruit, pastry or gold were given to friends on New Year's Day. In Britain the traditional day to give presents until relatively recently was December 26th and not as it is today, Christmas Day. December 26th is now known as Boxing Day, for it was then that the priests of the Middle Ages opened alms boxes to give to the poor.

Not all Christian customs and traditions are of ancient origin. Although various people have claimed to have designed the first Christmas card. William Egley, an English artist, seems to have the best claim. In 1842 he designed his own card and sent it to one hundred of his friends. Today three billion are sent annually in the United States alone.

SIR ISAAC NEWTON

Isaac Newton is universally recognized as one of the greatest scientists of all times. Isaac Newton was born in 1642. In his youth he was known as a "silent, thinking boy". At the age of 19 he entered Cambridge University where he displayed remarkable ability in science. At 26 Newton became a professor at the University. His main interests were mathematics, electrical mechanics and physical optics.

At twenty-two he began studying the theory of gravity. Many people already knew that the planets moved endlessly round the sun. But nobody could explain what kept them moving. Newton showed that the motions of the planets were the natural result of universal laws of nature. His great work, the "Principia" was published in 1687. In this book Newton clarified all that he had discovered about the movements of planets and their satellites. He said that a body in motion would continue to travel in a Straight line forever unless some force was applied to stop it.

The laws of gravity enabled him to explain many mysteries of the structure of the universe. Newton showed how the mass of the sun could be calculated from the speed and distance of any planet. He calculated the force of gravity between the sun and the planets and the quantity of matter in all these objects. He showed that the weight of the same body would be twenty-three times greater at the surface of the sun than at the surface of the earth. He found the true size and shape of the earth.

The "Principia" created a wave of interest all over Europe and made many scientists become angry. Most of them could not believe that great planets were hanging in empty space, and were kept in their orbits by an unseen power of the sun.

Newton's results were better than anything that human reason had reached before Newton. He proved that mechanical laws acting on the earth, that is, in the world in which we live, are-connected with mechanical laws of the whole universe.

That Newton discovered the three most important laws of motion is known to everybody. For all practical purposes these laws of motion, are true to this day, but they are only part of Newton's contribution to physical science.

Newton died in 1727 and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

II.Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:

1) celebration of the birth

2) a huge fir tree

3) a Christian celebration

4) throughout the year

5) true to say

6) symbol of love and reconciliation.

7) on the very top

8) customs and traditions

9) tinsel and sparkling lights

10) his own card

III.Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:

1) языческие и христианские фестивали

2)форма земли

3) необычная комбинация

4)движение планет и

5)спутников

6) крошечные огни

7) теория гравитации

8) яркая цветная бумага

9) заставляет двигаться

5)древнее происхождение

10)тайны строения

Вселенной

IV.Найдите в тексте слова, имеющие общий корень с данными словами. Определите, к какой части речи они относятся, и переведите их на русский язык:

Doubt, any, mechanic, every, practice, contribute, science, physics, tradition, universe.

V.Задайте к выделенному в тексте предложению все типы вопросов: общий, альтернативный, разделительный, два специальных: а) к подлежащему, б )к любому члену предложения.

VI.Выполните анализ данных предложений, обратив внимание на следующие грамматические явления: числительные; времена группы Continuous (Present, Past, Future Active & Passive); усилительная конструкция; времена группы Perfect (Present, Past, Future Active & Passive); функции глаголов to be, to have; согласование времен; неопределенные местоимения some, any, no и их производные:

  1. The Christmas tree has spread its influence around the world.

  2. Newton's results were better than anything that human reason had reached before Newton.

  3. It is Newton who discovered the three most important laws of motion is known to everybody.

  4. They said that the laws of gravity had enabled him to explain many mysteries of the structure of the universe.

  5. He showed that the weight of the same body would be twenty-three times greater at the surface of the sun than at the surface of the earth.

VII.Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:

1. What is the word "Christmas" derived from?

2. Where does a Christmas tree stand?

3. What influence has the Christmas tree spread around the world?

4. What is a symbol of love and reconciliation?

5. What is the history of giving presents?

6. At what age did Newton become a professor at the University?

7. What did Newton discover?

VIII.Составьте аннотацию к тексту (2-3 предложения).

IX.Составьте реферат текста (10-15 предложений).

X. Составьте план текста и перескажите текст.

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