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VII.Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:

1. When have men tried to use solar energy?

2. What is the most fundamental of all thermal solar processes?

3. What is the angle effect caused by?

4. What is the most effective way to minimize the loss of energy from the heated surface?

5. What is known to be the simplest collector of solar energy?

6. What do we call our "solar system"?

7. Where are luminofores widely used?

VIII.Составьте аннотацию к тексту (2-3 предложения).

IX.Составьте реферат текста (10-15 предложений).

X. Составьте план текста и перескажите текст.

Вариант № 17

I.Прочитайте и переведите текст:

ENERGY AND ELECTRONS

The structure of the atom is similar to planetary system, electrons orbiting around a central nucleus. Electrons also rotate about their own axes. We know the rate of electron rotation and the orbital path determine the amount of energy possessed by the atom.

The total energy contained in any atom is known to be the sum of the energies of the individual electrons. Electrons of a given atom can be changed from their position by different energies. Radioactive materials, for example, are constantly undergoing a change. Radioactive energy emitted from the material changes it from one form to another. It is also possible to change the atom structure by means of controlled nuclear reaction. The atomic bomb and the hydrogen bomb are known to be example of great amount of energy contained in an atomic structure. There are much simpler methods of changing the amount of energy in a given atomic structure. A photoelectric cell, for example, has a large area photocathode made from chemically active materials. These materials are known to be alcali metals.

They are electrically active to the degree that they emit electrons when struck by light.

Light falling on the cathode will cause electrons to be emitted, the anode being supplied with a positive potential, electrons will be attracted toward it, producing a photoelectric current. This is well-known photoemissive cell; it has many uses in modern industry. Basic laws governing the photoelectric effect were stated by Stoletov. They are also true for the laser operation. There are two basic laws of photoelectricity.

The first law is known to state that the number of electrons released per unit of time from photoelectric surface is directly proportional to the intensity of the incident light. Thus, the more lintense light, the greater is the number of electrons to be released. This law states that the greater the light intensity, the greater is the current flow in the photoelectric cell.

The photoelectrons the light energy which falls on the photocathode excites the outers of the atoms. Thus, the light energy causes photoemission.

ELECTRONICS AND TECHNICAL PROGRESS

Large-scale application of electronic technique is a trend of technical progress capable of revolutionizing many branches of industry.

Electronics as a science studies the properties of electrons, the laws of their motion, the laws of the transformation of various kinds of energy through the media of electrons.

Electronics and radio electronics in our country have developed from the country's only radio laboratory in Nizhni Novgorod into hundreds of research institutes, design offices and laboratories employing tens of thousands of people.

At present it is difficult to enumerate all branches of science and technology which are based on electronic technique. Without radio electronics we would not have cybernetics, cosmonautics and nuclear physics. It is no mistake, therefore, to compare the birth of electronics to such great achievements of mankind as the discovery of fire, the use of the wheel, and the penetration into the secrets the atom.

Electronics makes it possible to raise industrial automation to a higher level, to prepare conditions for the future technical equipping of the national economy. It is expected to revolutionize the system of control over mechanism and production processes. The use of electronic and cybernetic machines led to radical changes in the management of big economic organizations, large plants, and so on. Electronics greatly helps to conduct fundamental research in nuclear physics, in the study of the nature of matter, and in the realization of controlled thermonuclear reactions. Electronic telescopes are used by astronomers to penetrate far into the unknown regions of the universe.

An even greater role is being played by electronics in the development of the chemical industry.

are

Electronics includes many independent branches. The main among them are vacuum, semiconductor, molecular and quantum electronics.

II.Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:

1) a central nucleus

2) application of electronic technique

7) by means of nuclear reaction

8) the laws of motion

3) photoemissive cell

4) all branches of science

5) basic laws

6) the penetration into the secrets the atom

9) intensity of the incident light

10) radical changes

III.Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:

1) вращаться вокруг оси

2)великие достижения

3)претерпевать изменения

4)открытие огня

5)данная атомная структура

6) проводить

фундаментальные исследования

7)свойства электронов

8)природа материи

9)ядерная физика

10)независимые отрасли

IV.Найдите в тексте слова, имеющие общий корень с данными словами. Определите, к какой части речи они относятся, и переведите их на русский язык:

Go, simple, change, photo, govern, direct, known, manage, high, achieve.

V.Задайте к выделенному в тексте предложению все типы вопросов: общий, альтернативный, разделительный, два специальных: а)к подлежащему, б)к любому члену предложения.

VI.Выполните анализ данных предложений, обратив внимание на следующие грамматические явления: числительные; времена группы Continuous (Present, Past, Future Active & Passive); усилительная конструкция; времена группы Perfect (Present, Past, Future Active & Passive); функции глаголов to be, to have; согласование времен; неопределенные местоимения some, any, no и их производные:

1. Radioactive materials, for example, are constantly undergoing a change.

2. Electronics and radio electronics in our country have developed from the country's only radio laboratory in Nizhni Novgorod into hundreds of research institutes.

3. Electronic telescopes are used by astronomers to penetrate far into the unknown regions of the universe.

4. It is Stoletov who stated basic laws governing the photoelectric effect.

5. The total energy contained in any atom is known to be the sum of the energies of the individual electrons.

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