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VII.Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:

  1. What is the structure of the atom similar to?

  2. How is the total energy contained in any atom known?

  3. Whom were basic laws governing the photoelectric effect stated by?

  4. What is the first law of photoelectricity?

  5. What does electronics as a science study?

  6. Where have electronics and radio electronics in our country developed from?

  7. What independent branches does electronics include?

VIII.Составьте аннотацию к тексту (2-3 предложения).

IX.Составьте реферат текста (10-15 предложений).

X. Составьте план текста и перескажите текст.

Вариант № 18

I.Прочитайте и переведите текст:

English Geo

When we speak of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland we actually speak about four countries united into one state. So Great Britain proper comprises: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Each of these countries has its own language, its capital, its government.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain is situated on the British Isles lying to the north-west of the continent of Europe. The British Isles consists of two main Islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and over five hundred small Islands.

Britain is comparatively small, but there is hardly a county in the world where such a variety of scenery can be found in so small a compass. There are wild desolate mountains in the northern Highlands of Scotland, flat tulip fields round the Fens, that would make you think you were in Holland, within a few miles of Manchester and Sheffield you can be in glorious heather-covered moors.

You can notice on the map how deeply indented the coastline is. This indentation gives a good supply of splendid harbours for ships; and you can note too, that owning to the shape of the country there is no point in it that is more than seventy miles from the sea.

The surface of England and Ireland is rather flat while the highland area comprises Scotland and most of Wales. The Cheviot Hills running from east to west, separate England from Scotland. The Pennine Chain extends southward from the Cheviot Hills into the Midlands.

There are many rivers in Great Britain but they are not long. The longest river is the Severn, flowing south-west into the Irish Sea. The busiest and the most important river is the Thames. The chief river in Scotland is the Clyde. Many of the English and Scottish rivers are joined by canals, so that it's possible to travel by water from one end of Great Britain to the other. The rivers of Britain are of no great value as water-ways, few of them are navigable except near the mouth for anything but the smaller vessels.

The UK has many beautiful lakes in Scotland and north-west England. Many Scottish valleys between the hills are filled with lakes, called lochs. The best known is Loch Ness where as some people think a large monster lives. The Lake District in northern England with its lakes, mountains and valleys is a favourite holiday resort.

There are no great forests in Great Britain now. Historically, the most famous forest is Sherwood Forest, the home of Robin Hood. It is to the north of London.

The seas round the British Isles are shallow. The North Sea is nowhere more than 600 feet deep, so that if St. Paul's Cathedral were put down in any part of it some of the cathedral would still be above water.

The Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of Gulf Stream influence the climate of Great Britain, making it temperate and mild. Rains all year round and thick fogs in autumn or in winter are the most typical features of the climate in Great Britain.

Environmental protection

Some hundreds of years ago people lived in harmony with nature, because industry was not much developed. Today, however, the contradictions between man and nature are dramatic.

The twenty first century is a century of the scientific and technological progress. The achievements of the mankind in mechanization and automation of industrial processes, in chemical industry and conquering outer space, in the creation of atomic power stations and ships are amazing. But at the same time, this progress gave birth to a very serious problem — the problem of environment.

Ecology and the contamination of environment, is concerned with climate, overpopulation in certain areas, deaths of plant and animals, chemical contamination of seas, lakes and rivers as well as atomic experiments and dumping of atomic waste from power stations. Floods, unexpected draughts, and the greenhouse effect are the next reasons.

There are many consequences of damaging the environment. One of them is acid rain. Another one is water shortage resulting from abuse of arable lands in agriculture. The third one is destroying the ozone layer of the Earth through pollution from factories and plants. The fourth problem is damage of water and soils. The fifth one is damage to wildlife: numerous species of animals and plants can disappear. At last, the most serious danger arising from damaging the environment is the result of the abovementioned consequences. This is the danger for the life and health of the man.

The protection of natural resources and wildlife is becoming a political programme in every country. Numerous anti-pollution acts passed in different countries led to considerable improvements in environment. In many countries purifying systems for treatment of industrial waters have been installed, measures have been taken to protect rivers and seas from oil waters.

But the environmental problems have grown beyond the concern of a single country. Their solution requires the co-operation of all nations.

If we are unable to learn to use the environment carefully and protect it from damage caused by man's activities, very soon we'll have no world to live in.

II.Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:

1) its own language

2) flat tulip fields

3) to the north-west

4) heather-covered moors

5) comparatively small

6) splendid harbours

7) a variety of scenery

8) busiest and the most important river

9) wild desolate mountains

10) joined by canals

III.Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:

1)возможно путешествовать

2)густые туманы

3)не представляют большой ценности

4)завоевания космоса

5)огромное чудовище

6)последствия разрушения окружающей среды

7)мелкие моря

8)противоречия между человеком и природой

9) влияет на климат

10)кислотные дожди

IV.Найдите в тексте слова, имеющие общий корень с данными словами. Определите, к какой части речи они относятся, и переведите их на русский язык:

Contaminate, populate, expect, green, short, result, pollute, mention, wild, improve.

V.Задайте к выделенному в тексте предложению все типы вопросов: общий, альтернативный, разделительный, два специальных: а) к подлежащему, б) к любому члену предложения.

VI.Выполните анализ данных предложений, обратив внимание на следующие грамматические явления: числительные; времена группы Continuous (Present, Past, Future Active & Passive); усилительная конструкция; времена группы Perfect (Present, Past, Future Active & Passive); функции глаголов to be, to have; согласование времен; неопределенные местоимения some, any, no и их производные:

1. But the environmental problems have grown beyond the concern of a single country.

2. The protection of natural resources and wildlife is becoming a political programme in every country.

3. They said there were many consequences of damaging the environment.

4. It is the twenty first century that is a century of the scientific and technological progress.

5. The third one is destroying the ozone layer of the Earth through pollution from factories and plants.

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