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VII.Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:

1. What are scientists in industrially developed countries currently working on?

2. What makes it possible to eliminate air and water pollution?

3. What factors are slowly changing the global climate and water balance?

4. What actions are necessary to take to deal successfully with the problem of protecting the environment throughout the world?

5. What are the British, like many other Europeans, becoming more and more worried about?

6. How many super cities are there in the world with population from one to 15 million and more?

7. What do any experts consider about protection of the big cities?

VIII.Составьте аннотацию к тексту (2-3 предложения).

IX.Составьте реферат текста (10-15 предложений).

X. Составьте план текста и перескажите текст.

Вариант № 16

I.Прочитайте и переведите текст:

London, its History and Development

It is known that the area around London was inhabited the Celts. Later the Romans founded a military camp there. The camp developed into a port. The area of about I square mile where the Romans built their fortifications corresponds approximately to today of London. London was the capital of one of the Roman provinces. After the Romans left Britain, London became less important greatly from the Danes and Vikings It was in the 12-th century that London finally became the capital of England. In the

16-th century London, with its 500,000 inhabitants, was the largest city in England. Under Queen Elizabeth the First in the 17-th century England dominated the oceans and became the Empire. It is in the Elizabethan Age that art, culture and literature flowered, especially in London. Over the centuries London became the centre of a constantly growing empire. The empire reached its apex under Queen Victoria. Industrialization and the expansion of international trade brought London power and cultural and economic development. In the First and Second World Wars London was ruined considerably.

Some 9 million people now live in London and its suburbs, and the city covers an area of 620 square miles, making it one of the largest of the world’s capitals. One reason for its size is that the English people like to live in small houses and have small gardens. As a result, less than 5,000 people live in the City of London, while more than half a million come here to work in the daytime. Today London is the capital of Great Britain and is also the seat of the Royal Family, the Parliament, the major administrative bodies and scientific institutions.

The Houses of Parliament stand on the bank of the Thames at Westminster Abbey. Actually it is one building but it is called “Houses” as it consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. It was set up in the 13-th century. At one end of the Houses of Parliament there is a tower with a large clock. The largest bell, known as Big Ben, chimes in the hour.

Westminster Abbey was a monastery built in the 8th century. It is one of the best examples of the Early English architecture. The kings and queens of England are buried there. Many great statesmen, writers and poets are also buried there.

In the centre of London there is one of the beautiful squares — Trafalgar Square which was named so to commemorate Nelson’s victory in the battle of Trafalgar. There is the monument in its centre known as Nelson’s Column.

In the vicinity of Trafalgar Square is Whitehall which is now a street of government offices. Not far from Whitehall is Downing Street. Number 10 Downing Street is the residence of the Prime Minister of England. The Cabinet meets there. One must mention the British Museum. It is one of the most extensive and valuable museums in West Europe. It was founded in 1753. It also comprises the National Library. There are other numerous museums and galleries displaying interesting finds from all parts of the world and from all stages in the development of nature, man and art. There are also two large opera houses, the National Theatre and 50 other theatres. Monuments of past greatness are everywhere in London.

Electricity

It is impossible to imagine our civilization without electricity: economic and social progress will be turned to the past and our daily lives completely transformed.

Electrical power has become universal. Thousands of applications of electricity such as lighting, electrochemistry and electrometallurgy are longstanding and unquestionable.

With the appearance of the electrical motor, rower cables replaced transmission shafts, gear wheels, belts and pulleys in the 19-th century workshops. And the home a whole range of various time and labour saving appliances have become a part of our everyday lives.

Other devices are based on specific properties of electricity:

electrostatics in the case of photocopying machine and electromagnetism in the case of radar and television. These applications have made electricity most widely used.

The first industrial application was in the silver workshops in Paris. The generator — a new compact source of electricity — was also developed there. The generator replaced the batteries and other devices that had been used before.

Electric lighting came into wide use at the end of the last century with the development of the electric lamp by Thomas Edison. Then the transformer was invented, the electric lines and networks were set up, dynamos and induction motors were designed.

Since the beginning of the 20-th century the successful development of electricity has begun throughout the industrial world. The consumption of electricity has doubled every ten years.

Today consumption of electricity per capita is an indicator of the state of development and economic health of a nation.

A Great Citizen of the World

Every day many people visited Thomas A. Edison’s laboratories in Orange, New Jersey. Some of them were young inventors who went to study, but many more of them were tourists. They came from all parts of the US and from other countries as well.

One day a very important citizen from England visited Edison’s factories, taking with him his young son, eight years old. They spent hours in great workshops, looking at hundreds of useful inventions.

Before leaving the laboratories the man went to the office of the building. Giving his card to the person in charge, he asked: “May I speak to Mr. Edison, please?” The man looked at the card and then answered:

“Wait a minute, I’ll see”. Soon he returned and said: “Come this way, please. Mr. Edison will see you.”

The father and his son went into the great inventor’s workroom. “Mr. Edison”, said the Englishman, “I brought my young son here to what the world’s greatest citizen has done. I want this day to help him his life. Will you please shake hands with him and say something - will remember?”

Mr. Edison took the boy’s hand. He laid his other hand on their shoulder and looked into his eyes. “My boy”, he said, “don’t watch the clock.”

In 1928 Mr. Edison was eighty-one years old, but he still worked sixteen hours a day.

II.Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:

1) a military camp

2) two chambers

3) less important

4) extensive and valuable museums

5) a constantly growing empire

6) great workshops

7) international trade

8)shake hands with him

9) as a result

10) sixteen hours a day

III.Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:

1)соответствует приблизительно

2) успешное развитие

электричества

3)экономическое развитие

4)широкое использование

5)молодые изобретатели

6)потребление электричества

7)полезные изобретения

8)стала универсальной

9)памятники прошлого величия

10)появление

электрического мотора

IV.Найдите в тексте слова, имеющие общий корень с данными словами. Определите, к какой части речи они относятся, и переведите их на русский язык:

Electro, long, question, consumer, light, form, great, work, develop, complete.

V.Задайте к выделенному в тексте предложению все типы вопросов: общий, альтернативный, разделительный, два специальных: а)к подлежащему, б)к любому члену предложения.

VI.Выполните анализ данных предложений, обратив внимание на следующие грамматические явления: формы глаголов to be, to have; оборот there is/are; степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий; множественное число существительных; Present, Past, Future Simple Active/Passive; модальные глаголы.

1. Some 9 million people now live in London and its suburbs, and the city covers an area of 620 square miles, making it one of the largest of the world’s capitals.

2. It was set up in the 13-th century.

3. At one end of the Houses of Parliament there is a tower with a large clock.

4. The largest bell, known as Big Ben, chimes in the hour.

5. The father and his son went into the great inventor’s workroom.

6. There are also two large opera houses, the National Theatre and 50 other theatres.

7. After the Romans left Britain, London became less important greatly from the Danes and Vikings.

VII.Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:

1. Where did the Romans found a military camp?

2. What century did London finally become the capital of England?

3. Why is it impossible to imagine our civilization without electricity?

4. What applications have made electricity most widely used?

5. Who visited Thomas A. Edison’s laboratories in Orange, New Jersey?

VIII.Составьте аннотацию к тексту (2-3 предложения).

IX.Составьте реферат текста (10-15 предложений).

X. Составьте план текста и перескажите текст.

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