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Вариант № 15

I.Прочитайте и переведите текст:

ULTRAVIOLET AND INFRARED

Visible light covers a very small part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Just above and below the visible light range are ultraviolet; and infrared light. The "ultra" in ultraviolet tells us that this light lies at frequencies higher than that of violet light lies; and the "infra" in infrared tells us that this light lies at frequencies lower than red.

Ultraviolet has a shorter, and infrared has longer wave lengths than visible light. The radiations were discovered long before anyone thought of electromagnetism. When light was passed through a prism and formed a spectrum on screen, scientists found that heating effect occur beyond the edges of the visible light spectrum.

Ultraviolet radiation produces many effects, some useful and some unpleasant. A certain amount of ultraviolet radiation is good for our health. It helps to form vitamin D in the skin. Ultraviolet light also kills microbes, and for that reason it is used in hospitals and to sterilize food.

Direct ultraviolet radiation is very bad for the eyes. This is one reason why it is dangerous to look directly at the sun. On the other hand, the human eye is quite capable of dealing with normal doses of scattered ultraviolet light.

Infrared energy is being used in automatic regulation of chemical and biological processes, temperature measurement and control dining manufacture of textiles, plastics and metals. New applications are appearing in navigation and aviation, weather research numerous scientific projects.

Other applications for infrared are found in photography aerial mapping, communications and control techniques.

Infrared energy is in use all around us. Infrared techniques are of great value in many industrial applications and are considered indispensable in many others. The possibilities of its application appear to be limited only by the imagination and skill of the user.

SOURCES OF POWER

The industrial progress of mankind is based on power; power for industrial plants, machines, heating and lighting system, transport. In fact, one can hardly find a sphere where power is not required.

At present most of the power required of obtained mainly, from two sources. One is from burning of fossil fuels, i.e. coal, natural gas and oil, for producing heat that will operate internal- and external-combustion engines. Many of these engines will actuate generators, which produce electricity. The second way of producing electricity is by means of generators that get their power from steam of water turbines. Electricity so produced then flows through transmission lines to houses, industrial plants, enterprises, etc.

It should be noted, however, that the generation of electricity by these conventional processes is highly uneconomic. Actually, only about 40 per cent of heat in the fuel is converted into electricity. Besides, the world resources of fossil fuels are not everlasting. On the other hand, the power produced hydroelectric plants, even if increased many times, will be able to provide for only a small fraction of the power required in near future.

Therefore much effort and thought are being given to other means of generating electricity.

One is the energy of hot water. Not long ago we began utilizing hot underground water for heating and hot water supply, and in some cases, for the generation of electric power.

Another promising field for the production of electricity is the use of ocean tides.

The energy of the Sun, which is being used in various ways, represents a practically unlimited source.

Using atomic fuel for the production of electricity is highly promising. It is a well-known fact, that one pound of uranium contains as much energy as there million pounds of coal, such cheap power can be provided wherever it is required. However, the efficiency reached in generating power from atomic fuel is not high, namely 40 per cent.

No wonder, therefore, that scientists all over the world are doing their best to find more efficient ways of generating electricity directly from the fuel (without using intermediate cycles). They already succeeded developing some processes, which are much more efficient, as high as 80 per cent, and in creating a number of devices capable of giving a higher efficiency. Scientists are hard at work trying to solve all these and many other problems.

II.Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:

1)visible light

2)steam of water turbines

3)wave length

4)transmission lines

6)useful effects

7)generation of electricity

8)kill microbes

9)the world resources

5) the human eye

10)near future

III.Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:

1)спектр видимого света

2)прогресс человечества

3)смотреть прямо на солнце

4)ископаемое топливо

5)с другой стороны

6)двигатели внутреннего и внешнего сгорания

7)рассеянное ультрафиолетовое излучение

8)подача горячей

воды

9)аэрофотографирование

10)энергия горячей воды

IV.Найдите в тексте слова, имеющие общий корень с данными словами. Определите, к какой части речи они относятся, и переведите их на русский язык:

Limit, know, product, high, how, name, direct, with, low, measure.

V.Задайте к выделенному в тексте предложению все типы вопросов: общий, альтернативный, разделительный, два специальных: а)к подлежащему, б)к любому члену предложения.

VI.Выполните анализ данных предложений, обратив внимание на следующие грамматические явления: числительные; времена группы Continuous (Present, Past, Future Active & Passive); усилительная конструкция; времена группы Perfect (Present, Past, Future Active & Passive); функции глаголов to be, to have; согласование времен; неопределенные местоимения some, any, no и их производные:

1. Ultraviolet radiation produces many effects, some useful and some unpleasant.

2. New applications are appearing in navigation and aviation, weather research numerous scientific projects.

3. Therefore much effort and thought are being given to other means of generating electricity.

4. It is the energy of the Sun, which is being used in various They already succeeded developing some processes, which are much more efficient, as high as 80 per cent, ways, that represents a practically unlimited source.

5. They said that they had already succeeded developing some processes, which were much more efficient, as high as 80 per cent.

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