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VII.Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:

1. What do we actually speak about when we speak of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland?

2. Where is the United Kingdom of Great Britain situated?

3. What can you say about the coastline of Great Britain?

4. What are the achievements of the mankind in mechanization and automation of industrial processes, in chemical industry and conquering outer space, in the creation of atomic power stations and ships?

5. What is ecology and the contamination of environment, concerned with?

6. What are consequences of damaging the environment?

7. What can you say about the protection of natural resources and wildlife?

VIII.Составьте аннотацию к тексту (2-3 предложения).

IX.Составьте реферат текста (10-15 предложений).

X. Составьте план текста и перескажите текст.

Вариант № 19

I.Прочитайте и переведите текст:

Global warming

"Global warming" has been introduced by the scientific community and the media as the term that encompasses all potential changes in climate that result from higher average global temperatures. Hundreds of scientists from many different countries are working to understand global warming and have come to a consensus on several important aspects. In general, Global warming will produce far more profound climatic changes than simply a rise in global temperature.

An analysis of temperature records shows that the Earth has warmed an average of 0.5°C over the past 100 years. This is consistent with predictions of global warming due to an enhanced greenhouse effect and increased aerosols. Part of the current global warmth is associated with the tropical El Nino, without which a record global temperature would probably not have occurred.

The Earth's climate is the result of extremely complex interactions among the atmosphere, the oceans, the land masses, and living organisms, which are all warmed daily by the sun's energy. This heat would radiate back into space if not for the atmosphere, which relies on a delicate balance of heat-trapping gases - including water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane - to act as a natural "greenhouse," keeping in just the right amount of the sun's energy to support life.

Mass media

Mass media (that is the press, the radio and television ) play an important role in the life of society. They inform, educate and entertain people. They also influence the way people look at the world and make them change their views. Mass media mould public opinion. Millions of people in their spare time watch TV and read newspapers. Everybody can find there something interesting for him. On the radio one can hear music, plays, news and various discussions or commentaries of current events. Lot's radio or TV games and films attract a large audience. Newspapers uses in different ways, but basically they are read.

There is a lot of advertisment on mass media. Some of the TV and radio stations and newspapers are owned by different corporations. The owners can advertise whatever they choose.

But it is hardly fair to say that mass media do not try to raise cultural level of the people or to develop their artistic taste. Mass media brings to millions of homes not only entertainment and news but also cultural and educational programs.

There are more then six TV channels and lot's of radio stations and newspapers now in the Russian Federation.

Power Sources. The basic hitch with today's electromobile is its limited range and excessive weight, coupled with the short life and high cost of the power source. The problem lies with the lead-acid accumulator now being produced and used, so researchers and designers are concentrating on improving the kind of electric cells we have, and on more effective power sources.

The big job is to increase power capacity per unit of mass. In a lead-acid accumulator this figure is approximately 22 watt/hour per kg of mass, with top models being perhaps 33 watt/hour per kg of mass. The power capacity of gasoline will reach about 11,000 watt/hour per kg of mass. So the conventional car with a 40-60 kg fuel tank can cover 400-600 km at a speed of 80-100 km ph, while an electromobile with a 15 kW engine (20 hp) and a battery of lead accumulators weighing 300-400 kg can cover (without recharging) 60-80 km at a speed of 40-60 km per hour. The electromobile would need a battery of 1,200-1,500 kg for a 400 km run, and that, needless to say, would be absolutely impracticable, since all its power would be expended just to move its own weight.

There are designs that will help overcome the problem of the time lost in recharging the accumulators, things like replacing the used-out battery in 10-15 min. Another drawback of lead accumulators is that they are quite expensive; one other drawback is that they have a short life relative to the number of rechargings. So it ends up that the cost of the accumulator in many of the electromobiles we now have is approximately half the cost of the entire vehicle, and its service life is 300-500 rechargings, equivalent to just 12-18 months of normal operation.

All kinds of other accumulator cells have been developed, with the best, in the weight sense at least, being the sodium sulphur battery, whose power capacity is five times greater than that of a lead battery. The problem is that its service life is one-tenth as long.

Despite the difficulties, there is more and more research being done on the electromobile.

II.Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:

1) scientific community

2) extremely complex interactions

3) average global temperatures

4) heat-trapping gases

5) profound climatic changes

6) to support life

7) predictions of global warming

8) life of society

9) greenhouse effect

10) entertain people

III.Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:

1)изменить взгляды

2)улучшение вида электрических батареек

3)формировать общественное мнение

7)в пять раз больше

8) вряд ли справедливо говорить

4)свинцовые аккумуляторы

5) культурный уровень

9)еще один недостаток

10) источник энергии

IV.Найдите в тексте слова, имеющие общий корень с данными словами. Определите, к какой части речи они относятся, и переведите их на русский язык:

Science, pass, high, climate, predict, green, with, act, sphere, every.

V.Задайте к выделенному в тексте предложению все типы вопросов: общий, альтернативный, разделительный, два специальных: а)к подлежащему, б)к любому члену предложения.

VI.Выполните анализ данных предложений, обратив внимание на следующие грамматические явления: числительные; времена группы Continuous (Present, Past, Future Active & Passive); усилительная конструкция; времена группы Perfect (Present, Past, Future Active & Passive); функции глаголов to be, to have; согласование времен; неопределенные местоимения some, any, no и их производные:

1. Hundreds of scientists from many different countries are working to understand global warming and have come to a consensus on several important aspects.

2. It is mass media that brings to millions of homes not only entertainment and news but also cultural and educational programs.

3. They said that mass media played an important role in the life of society.

4. Everybody can find there something interesting for him.

5. All kinds of other accumulator cells have been developed, with the best, in the weight sense at least, being the sodium sulphur battery, whose power capacity is five times greater than that of a lead battery.

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