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11. Translate into English.

1. Ця компания виробляе найсучасніші телевізори.

2. Не заважай мені! Я працюю над перекладом економічної статті.

3. Транснаціональні корпорації працюють в багатьох країнах світу.

4. Miй брат займаеться мал им бізнесом.

5. Економічна ситуація в країні впливае на розвиток бізнесу.

6. Багато европейських компаній торгують з Японіею.

7. Зараз уряд намагаеться знизити щни на продовольчі товари.

8. Mій приятель вивчас економіку.

9. Моя фірма зараз шукае нових партнерів по бізнесу.

10. Він заробляе $ 15, ООО на рік.

11.Мене не цікавить ваша пропозиція. Я розширюю свій власний бізнес.

12. Власники торгових підприємств зустрічаються завтра о 9 годині.

13. Ця фірма завжди надає якісні послуги.

14. Biн немає ніякої уяви про те, як керувати підприємством.

94

Modals: can/ could/ would

Form

+ I/You/He/She/It/We/They can go.

- I/You/He/She/It/We/They can't (= cannot) go.

? Can l/you/he/she/it/we/they/go?

Uses

1 We use can and could to:

• make requests.

Can I make a phone call?

Could you tell me the time, please? (a little more formal)

• give or refuse permission.

You can use my mobile phone. You can't go in there. It's private.

• make an offer.

Can I take your coat?

I can take you to the station if you like.

• describe ability.

Women can become train drivers.

When he was younger he could (= was able to) run a marathon in under three hours.

• say that something is possible or impossible.

You can make a lot of money if you work hard.

I can't get through to them. Their phone's always engaged.

2 We also use could to refer to future possibilities.

/ think we could increase our market share in the long term.

3 We use would to:

• make requests.

Would you open the door for me, please?

• make offers.

Would you like a glass of water?

• describe imaginary situations.

I would buy a Ferrari if I had enough money.

Modals : necessity and obligation: must, need to, have to, should

1 We often use must, need to and has/have to to say that something is compulsory or necessary.

We must be patient when our goals are for the long term.

Companies have to advertise to let consumers know they exist.

I need to have the figures before next Monday's meeting.

2 Need can also have a passive meaning.

The report needs to be checked before the end of the week.

3 We use had to to refer to a past obligation.

When I lived in Tokyo I had to learn Japanese.

4 We use should and shouldn't to give advice or to suggest the right course of action.

A CV should be printed on good quality note paper.

It shouldn't be more than two pages long.

95

Should often follows the verbs suggest and think.

I suggest/think we should aim at the top end of the market.

5 We use should to say that something is likely in the future.

Interest rates should come down soon - that's what the economists are predicting.

6 We use don't have to and don't need to when there is no obligation.

You don't have to queue up when you buy online.

If you buy now, you don't need to pay anything until next year.

7 We use must not when things are forbidden or against the law.

Drivers must not park their vehicles by a traffic light.

• Compare the uses of must not and don't have to in the sentence below.

In many companies employees must not wear jeans, but they do not have to wear a formal suit and tie.

EXERCISES

1. Match the personal qualities with abilities. Then make sentences using can.

For example:

If you are outgoing, you can easily mix with people socially.

1 outgoing a) speak two languages fluently

2 independent b) work for a longtime without a break

3 bilingual c) express your thoughts and feelings clearly

4 creative d) easily mix with people socially

5 articulate e) work well without the help or advice of other people

6 energetic f) find new solutions to problems

Requests

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