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Introduction, with the biological basis for cell mechanics

15

state can exert a force on their surroundings. Forces have been measured in resting fibroblasts, for example, where intracellular tension gives rise to stresses in the focal adhesions of the cell adherent to a flexible two-dimensional substrate of about 5 nN/µm2, or 5 kPa (Balaban, Schwarz et al., 2001). In experiments with various cell types grown in a three-dimensional gel such as collagen, the cells actively contract the matrix by more than 50 percent (Sieminski, Hebbel et al., 2004). These contractile forces are associated with intracellular molecular motors such as those in the myosin family.

Overview

This book presents a full spectrum of views on current approaches to modeling cell mechanics. In part, this diversity of opinion stems from the different backgrounds of contributors to the field. Indeed, the authors of this book come from the biophysics, bioengineering, and physical chemistry communities, and each joins the discussion with a unique perspective on biological systems. Consequently, the approaches range from finite element methods commonly used in continuum mechanics to models of the cytoskeleton as a cross-linked polymer network to models of soft glassy materials and gels. Studies reflect both the static, instantaneous nature of the structure as well as its dynamic nature due to polymerization and the full array of biological processes. It is unlikely that a single unifying approach will evolve from this diversity, in part because of the complexity of the phenomena underlying the mechanical properties of the cell. It is our hope, however, that a better appreciation of the various perspectives will lead to a more highly coordinated approach to the essential problems and might facilitate discussions among investigators with differing views.

Perhaps the most important purpose of this monograph is to stimulate new ideas and approaches. Because no single method has emerged as clearly superior, this might reflect the need for approaches not yet envisaged. That much of the work presented here derives from publications over the past several years reinforces the notion that cell mechanics is a rapidly evolving field. The next decade will likely yield further advances not yet foreseen.

References

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16R. D. Kamm and M. R. K. Mofrad

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Introduction, with the biological basis for cell mechanics

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