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1. Answer the following questions:

1. Why do people say, ‘If Wren had died at thirty he would have been remembered only as a figure in the history of English science’?

2. Where did Wren study to be an architect?

3. What masterpieces were erected by Wren?

2. Make up a summary of the article ‘Wren, Sir Christopher’.


Text 1. Types of Modern Cities

1. Match words with their Ukrainian equivalents. Read the text.

1. overlapping functions

2. one-industry towns

3. agricultural trading center

4. dawn of urban history

5. immediate hinterland

6. religious worship

7. secular homage

8. recuperation

9. prerequisite

10. historical continuum

11. are prone to move (into)

12. agglomeration

a. відновлення

b. історичний континуум

c. передумова

d. світанок історії містобудування

e. скупчення, нагромадження

f. схильні рухатися (в)

g. почесті світського характеру

h. функції, що частково збігаються

i. центр торгівлі сільгосппродуктами

j. міста однотипної промисловості

k. релігійне поклоніння

l. місцевість, що прилягає

безпосередньо до міста

Any classification of cities is somewhat arbitrary. The criteria of classification are a matter of choice. We classify cities according to functions, but we recognize that most cities are dedicated to a plurality of functions. The type is derived from the predominating function. Some cities, of course, are distinct types, such as college towns, one-industry towns, or agricultural trading centers. But such clear distinction is the exception rather than the rule. To establish a system of classification, we arrange function according to the manner in which it occurred in urban history. There are cities that functions as seats of institutions, trading centers, industrial centers, metropolitan centers, and resort towns.

The first mentioned city type, characterized as the seat of one or several institutions, reaches back into the dawn of urban history when city life was centered around the temple or the palace of the ruler. There were economic reasons, of course, that made the foundation and growth of such cities possible. They were dependent upon an agricultural surplus in the immediate hinterland. Yet the economic function of these early cities was subsidiary to religious worship or secular homage.

In the contemporary environment, the college town, the country seat, the seat of the state government, the agricultural experiment station and towns devoted to a variety of such purposes, containing schools, governmental institutions, churches, and libraries fall into this same category.

The city as a center exclusively for trade and commerce was prominent at another phase of urban development. Such singleness of purpose is usual for the large city in the contemporary scene. The cities at the shore of the Mediterranean Sea in antiquity, however, could be considered primarily centers of trade and commerce. Upon these cities the products of a vast rural hinterland converged. Between these cities, products of the hinterland were exchanged. From the urban centers, these products were distributed to the country population in the region.

In the Middle Age, urban commerce developed before urban industry. Trade gave a livelihood to merchants and to those engaged in transportation before it stimulated the development of crafts and industries, which were later to replace the commercial activities in importance. In the contemporary scene, we have to look to our agricultural trading centers for a similar type of town.

The industrial city reaches its full development during the industrialization process itself. It is dependent, in both location and growth, upon the availability of raw materials within a favorable range of transportation. It is dependent upon a labour supply, and not unconcerned with the distance at which the product can be marketed.

In the metropolitan center, the process of urbanization reaches its climax. The metropolitan center is characterized by a multiplicity of functions. It contains industry as well as commerce, educational as well as governmental institutions. The metropolitan center feeds on the cumulative processes of urban growth.

The metropolis may start its development from any of the above mentioned types. Let us assume a trading center favorably located near existing means of transportation. Large masses of consumers will be attracted by commercial activities and provide a sufficient market for the development of consumer goods industries. Nearby sources of raw materials may give further impulse to industrial development. The labour supply so collected induces an ever widening range of diversified industrial enterprise to locate within the metropolitan area. Educational and governmental institutions are prone to move into the already established large urban settlement where they will be close to the people they intend to serve.

The process may proceed along different lines. The metropolis may start as a center of industry, which – at a certain point of development – begins to attract banks, warehouses and other establishments to promote commerce in either raw materials or finished products. The metropolis may have its origin in a seat of government or an educational center. The beginning, however, is not very important once the metropolis has come into its own.

In its full bloom, the metropolitan center becomes an end in itself, gaining increasing advantage as an agglomeration of a large resident population. It fulfills regional as well as national and worldwide services in the pursuit of governmental, educational, commercial, and industrial activities.

We place the resort town at the very end of our historical continuum. The resort town appears as the outgrowth of a metropolitan way of life that requires specialized services for purposes of human recuperation. We need not elaborate upon its function. Suffice it to say that the resort town is economically dependent upon the existence of large urban settlements at a reasonable distance.

The resort is frequently tied to small urban settlements, which function simultaneously as agricultural trading centers. Accessibility to metropolitan travelers and a travelers and a site which appeals through natural features such as lakes and meadows and mountain are important prerequisites. Such conditions establish for the indigenous population the opportunity of additional income through boarding houses, hotels, cabins, and artificial recreational facilities.

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