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1. Read the statements below and decide if they are true or false.

  1. Roman baths were part of the day-to-day life in Ancient Rome. ( )

  2. The local bath complex was also a gathering point and served a very useful community and social function. Here people could relax, keep clean and keep up with the latest news. ( )

  3. The building of a bath complex required excellent engineering skills. Baths required a way of heating up water. This was done by using a furnace and the hypocaust system carried the heat around the complex. ( )

2. Put the following words in the sentences below.

Caldarium – a room with a hot plunge bath, used in a Roman bath complex.

Frigidarium – large cold pool to drop into after enjoying a hot Roman bath.

Tepidarium – the warm bathroom of the Roman baths heated by a hypocaust or underfloor heating system.

Within the building of Roman bath there were three rooms:

  • the ____________ is a room for taking hot baths.

  • the ____________ is a room for taking warm baths.

  • the ____________ is a room for taking cold baths.

  • sometimes there were also steam baths: the sudatorium — a moist steam bath, and the laconicum — a dry steam bath much like a modern day sauna.

A large complex would also contain an exercise area (the palaestra), a swimming pool and a gymnasium.

3. Choose and write down the correct verb forms. Read the text.

The building of a bath complex (0) _______ required excellent engineering skills. Baths (1) _______ (to require) a way of heating up water. This (2) _______ (to be done) by using a furnace and the hypocaust system carried the heat around the complex.

Water (3) _______ (to have) to be constantly supplied. In Rome this (4) _______ (to be done) using 640 kilometers of aqueducts – a superb engineering feat. The baths themselves (5) _______ (can) be huge. A complex built by the emperor Diocletian (6) _______ (to be) the size of a football pitch. Those who (7) _______ (to build) them (8) _______ (to want) to make a statement – so that many baths (9) _______ (to contain) mosaics and massive marble columns. The larger baths (10) _______ (to contain) statues to the gods and professionals (11) _______ (to be) on hand to help take the strain out of having a bath. Masseurs would massage visitors and then rub (12) _______ (to scent) olive oil into their skin.

‘Building tools’ Text 1. Tools and their uses

Match the following words and translations.

1. a string

2. a tie

3. a glue

4. to stick

5. a nail

6. a hammer/ to hammer

7. a screw/ to screw

8. to drill

9. a screw-driver

10. a saw/ to saw

A. зв’язувати

B. клей

C. цвях

D. молоток/ забивати молотком

E. приклеювати

F. гвинт/ загвинчувати

G. пилка/ пиляти

H. викрутка

I. свердлити

J. мотузка

Imagine that you have two pieces of wood and some tools in your hands. How many different ways of joining them together can you think of? Before you read any further, spend a few moments trying to answer this question. There are, in fact, many possible ways. Here are six.

Way 1. The simplest method of all is probably to take some string and tie one piece of wood to the other. This method will probably not keep the two pieces together for very long.

Way 2. Another simple way is to take some wood glue and put it on both pieces of wood. You will have to press the two pieces together very hard if you are lucky your two pieces will stick together.

Way 3. Another way is to use nails. You’ll need a hammer. Then band the nails into the wood. The nails must not be too big or they will crack the wood. And they must not be too small or the wood will not stay together.

Way 4. If you want to use screws to put two pieces of wood together, you first have to drill a hole through one of the pieces. You also have to start a hole in the second piece of wood. Then put the screw through the first hole and use the screwdriver to screw it in until it is tightly in the second piece of wood. Using screws is usually a very strong way of joining two pieces of wood.

Way 5. Instead of using screws you could use a nut and bolt. This time you have to drill a hole through both pieces of wood. Then you push the bolt through the holes and tighten a nut onto the end of the bolt using a spanner.

Way 6. The most complicated way of joining two pieces of wood together is to make a joint. To do this you need a saw. There are many different types of joints, but the basic idea is to cut a shape in one piece of wood and to saw out a matching piece in the other piece of wood. Then you fit the two pieces together and stick them with the glue.

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