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1. Answer the following questions.

1. Why has wooden structures flourished in Ukraine?

2. What are the main features of Ukrainian wood-building?

3. Where were wooden churches being built in Ukraine?

2. Read the text and decide if the statements after it are true (t) or false (f).

1. The Ukrainians were well-known as skilled woodworkers and engravers.( )

2. The idea in wood-building influenced on architecture perceptibly. ( )

3. The most of Ukrainian churches consist of six parts with either one or three cupolas. ( )

4. The newest type of church prevails in the Carpathians with a pyramid-like roofing of all three parts. ( )

5. The famous cathedral in Zaporoshie errected in 1773 – 1779 by J. Pohrebniak is a masterpiece of the Baroque Epoch. ( )

3. Make up a list of Wooden structures in Ukraine. Text 6. Farmhouses

The Ukrainian farmhouses were, at first, chiefly built of wood. In recent times wood was occasionally replaced by other materials, such as, clay, bricks and stones – particularly in Southern Ukraine.

The so-called ‘Osidok’ in Hutsulshchyna may be considered the oldest and original type of building on the Ukrainian countryside. ‘Osidok’ is a group of buildings, constituting a farmyard, surrounded by a fence. These peasant-houses are characterized by great originality of design and skillful wood-carving, in general, the farmhouse presents a similar picture throughout Ukraine: a neatly whitewashed little house, under slaw-thatched roof, towers out of gardens and flower-beds. The beauty of a farmhouse is accentuated by a gaily painted foundation, known as the ‘prysba’ and by paintings around windows and under the eaves.

Less uniform is the inner arrangement and furnishing of the rooms. The farmhouse of an average farmer consists of a large entrance hall with rooms on both sides. The arrangement of the living rooms is usually such: A large fire-place, of interesting design, stands in one corner; shelves for kitchenware are

Fitted into another corner: in the third corner a large bed is placed, while the fourth corner, ‘pokuttia’, is reserved for holy pictures, a dining table, benches and chairs.

The furniture of the farmhouse is generally plain and made according to the size of the room. The shelves for dishes are often adorned with beautiful carving. In every farmhouse there is a huge ‘treasure chest used for clothing, expensive materials. carpets, linens and valuables. Such a chest is always beautifully-carved and painted.

1. Answer the following questions.

1. What building materials were used by the Ukrainians to erect farmhouses?

2. What is the oldest and the most original farmhouse on Ukrainian countryside?

3. What are the national features of Ukrainian farmhouse?

2. Read the text and decide if the statements after it are true (t) or false (f).

1. ‘Osidok’ is a group of buildings on a farmyard, surrounded by a fence. ( )

2. The farmhouses (‘Osidok’) are characterized by great originality of design and skillful wood-carving, but the peasant house does not present a similar picture throughout Ukraine. ( )

3. The fourth corner, ‘pokuttia’ is a place of holy pictures. ( )

4. The furniture of the farmhouse is often adorned with beautiful carving and painted. ( )

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