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Text 2. A Roman theatre

Roman towns are famous for their places of entertainment, which were often decorated as lavishly as the forum and the temples.

The roman loved chariot races, and larger towns had tracks, often outside the walls. The Romans also adopted the idea of building theatres in stone from the Greeks. These great D shaped building were surpassed in size only by amphitheatres, the huge oval arenas where gladiators and animals fought in bloody combats.

This splendid Roman theatre is of the type seen in Italy and many of the Mediterranean provinces. It could hold several thousand people. Its deep, semicircular shape and the sloping roof above the stage meant that even those high up at the back could hear the actors clearly – provided the crowd kept quiet! The stage often had an elaborate backdrop (the scenaefrons) decorated with marble columns, statues and mosaics. It represented three house-fronts, and the actors entered and exited through the doors. Actors could perform on the stage and in an area in front called orchestra. The seating for the audience was supported on elaborately- constructed concrete vaults and arches.

1. Answer the following questions:

1. What was the form of Roman theatre?

2. Had the Romans the own idea to build theatre?

3. What was the aim deep, semicircular shape and the sloping roof above the stage in Roman theatre?

4. How was the scene decorated?

2. Make up a short story about theatre in your own city. Tell about its form, shape, roof, scene decoration. Text 3. Stonehenge

Stonehenge is a Neolithic and Bronze Age megalithic monument located near Amesbury in the English county of Wiltshire, about 8 miles (13km) north of Salisbury. Its geographical location is 51°10'43.87"N, 1°49'35.07"W.

It is composed of earthworks surrounding a circular setting of large standing stones and is one of the most famous prehistoric sites in the world.

Archaeologists think that the standing stones were erected between 2500 BC and 2000 BC although the surrounding circular earth bank and ditch, which constitute the earliest phase of the monument, have been dated to about 3100 BC.

The site and its surroundings were added to the UNESCO’s list of World Heritage Sites in 1986 in a co-listing with Avebury henge monument, and it is also a legally protected Scheduled Ancient Monument. Stonehenge itself is owned and managed by English Heritage whilst the surrounding downland is owned by the National Trust.

1. Find out if the following statements true or false.

1. Stonehenge lies near Amesbury. ( )

2. It is about 8 miles north of Wiltshire. ( )

3. Archaeologists think that the stones were erected 4000 years ago. ( )

4. One part of the monument was built around 3100 BC. ( )

5. In 1986 Stonehenge was declared a World Heritage Site. ( )

2. Put the words below in the gaps.

alien circular function mysterious observatory

positioned represent structures theories unsure

Stonehenge is one of the most (1) _______ monuments in the world. Located about eight miles northwest of Salisbury, England, Stonehenge is a set of earthworks surrounding a (2) _______ grouping of large, standing stones known as megaliths. Considering Stonehenge is about 4,000 – 4,500 years old, Archaeologists still aren't sure how the people of that time moved and (3) _______ the stones. Archaeologists are also (4) _______ of what Stonehenge was meant to (5) _______ or how it was to (6) _______, though many (7) _______ exist. Some believe Stonehenge was used as an ancient (8) _______, others believe it was built as a permanent stone symbol of the more numerous wooden (9) _______ that were built in the area, and still others believe it was an ancient (10) _______ landing site!

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