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5. The oral cavity ротова порожнина

PART I

PRE-TEXT ASSIGNMENTS

Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation:

mucus ['mju:kas]; saliva [sə'laivə]; maxilla [mæk'silə]; mandible ['mændibl]; grind [graind]; branch [bra:nt∫]; tissue ['tisju:]; surface ['sə:fis]; palate ['pælit]; dense [dens]; contain [kən'tein].

Exercise 2. Learn the following words:

to attach прикріплювати

branch галузь

to contain містити

dense щільний

to grind перемелювати

jaw щелепа

mandible нижня щелепа

maxilla верхня щелепа

moist вологий

mucus слиз

palate піднебіння

root корінь

saliva слина

socket лунка

sponge губка, губчастий

to supply забезпечувати

surface поверхня

tissue тканина

tongue язик

Exercise 3. Read the word combinations and translate them:

Jaw: stationary jaw, movable jaw, lower jaw, upper jaw, branch of the jaw.

Bone: dense bone, hard bone, sponge-like bone.

Tissue: red tissue, moist tissue, glistening tissue.

Surface: inner surface, outer surface.

Exercise 4. Give Ukrainian equivalents:

Protective covering, parotid gland, moist tissue, inner surface, dense bone, sponge-like structure, lower jaw, stationary part, floor of the mouth, horseshoe-shaped.

Exercise 5. Translate the sentences paying attention to the Passive voice:

  1. The upper jaw is attached to the skull by muscles.

  2. The lower jaw is made up of two parts.

  3. The bone which sponge-like in structure is called the alveolar process.

  4. The roots are held in sockets by a membrane.

  5. Three principal pairs of glands are recognized.

  6. Food is ground up by the teeth.

Exercise 6. Read and translate the text:

The oral cavity

The human being has two jaws: an upper and a lower one. The upper jaw (the maxilla) is stationary forming part of the skull. The lower jaw (the mandible) is movable and attached to the skull by muscles. The Lower jaw is made up of two parts: the horse-shoe-shaped horizontal portion to which the teeth are attached and which is called "the body of the mandible" and the perpendicular part, the ramus. There are two rami, the left and the right.

The major portion of the structure, which makes up the jaw, is dense, hard bone but there is a part which is sponge-like in structure. This is called the alveolar process: and contains the sockets into which the roots of the teeth fit. The roots are held in place in sockets by a membrane, which is called the periodontal membrane.

A red, moist, glistening tissue, which is called the mucous membrane or mucosa forms a protective covering for the tongue, palate, floor of the mouth and the inside of the lips and cheeks, much as the skin does for the rest of the body.

Underneath the tongue and the inner surface of the cheeks there are glands, three principal pairs being recognized: the sublingual, submaxillaries and parotids. They supply water, ferments and mucus to the food which is ground up by the teeth.

POST-TEXT ASSIGNMENTS

Exercise 7. Answer the questions to the text:

  1. What does the lower part of the facial skull consist of?

  2. What is the structure of the jaw bone?

  3. Where do the roots of the teeth fit?

  4. What does mucosa form?

  5. Where are glands situated?

  6. What are the names of the principal glands?

  7. What do the salivary glands supply to the food?

Exercise 8. Put questions to the underlined words:

  1. The lower jaw is made up of two parts.

  2. The roots are held in sockets by a membrane.

  3. The mucous membrane forms a protective covering.

  4. The salivary glands supply water, ferments and mucus to the food ground up by the teeth.

  5. The upper jaw is stationary.

Exercise 9. Find antonyms to the following words:

Moist, lower, hard, underneath, inside, horseshoe-shaped.

Exercise 10. Retell the text.

PART II

PRE-TEXT ASSIGNMENTS

Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation:

ancient ['ent∫(ə)nt]; Egyptians [i'dʒip∫(ə)n]; civilization [ֽsivilai'zei∫(ə)n]; stomach ['stΛmək]; heart [ha:t]; lung [lΛŋ]; substance ['sΛbst(ə)ns]; acupuncture ['ækju:ֽpΛŋkt∫ə]; China ['t∫ainə]; Hygeia [hai'dʒiə]; technique [tek'ni:k]; incisor [in'saizə]; Oath [əuθ].

Exercise 2. Learn the following words:

ancient древній

inscription напис

tombstone надгробна плита

to indicate вказувати

to consider вважати

to establish встановлювати

acupuncture акупунктура, голкотерапія

internal внутрішній

filling заповнення, пломба

embalming process процес бальзамування

substance речовина

incisor різець

canine ікло

molar корінний зуб

oath присяга

ivory слонова кість

precious коштовний

Exercise 3. Give Ukrainian equivalents to the following word combinations and make your own sentences with them:

internal organ; false teeth; different disorders; dental diseases; thin needle; dental prostheses; removable denture; loose teeth; scientific point of view; separate branch; narcotic substances in the treatment.

Exercise 4. Read and translate the text:

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