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17. Dental radiography стоматологічна рентгенологія

PRE-TEXT ASSIGNMENTS

Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation:

Radiograph ['reidiəugra:f]; surrounding [sə'raundiŋ]; essential [i'sen∫(ə)l]; exposure [iks'pəuʒə]; visual ['viʒjuəl]; purpose ['pə:pəs]; technique [tek'ni:k]; shield [∫i:ld]; requirements [ri'kwaiəmənt].

Exercise 2. Learn the following words:

radiograph рентгенівський знімок

modern сучасний

X-ray pентгенівський промінь

to detect помічати, відкривати, виявляти

to hide ховати

to expose показувати

to process обрабляти

film плівка

surrounding оточуючий

suitable відповідний

to penetrate проникати

requirement необхідна умова

purpose призначення, намір, мета

Exercise 3. Fill in the right prefix: micro-, over-, sur- or ultra- :

1. ____second - one millionth of a second.

2. ____charge - to ask for more money than usual.

3. ____-conservative - extremely conservative.

4. ____electronics- the branch of electronics that deals with miniature components.

5. ____-modern - very modern.

6. ____react - to react too enthusiastically.

7. ____sleep - to sleep longer than one intended.

8. ____coat - a heavy coat used outside other garments.

9. ____crowded - full of too many people or things.

10. ____realistic - characterized by fantastical imagery and unrealistic locations.

11. ____plus - a quantity greater than needed.

12. ____scopic - invisible to the bare eye.

13. ____biology the branch of biology that studies microorganisms and their effects on humans.

14. ____face - the outermost level of the land or sea.

15. ____come - get on top of; deal with successfully.

Exercise 4. Read and translate the text:

Dental radiography

Dental Radiography is a highly specialized field and used by every modern dental practice.

A radiograph is an exposed and processed film also known as an X-ray negative. They are pictures of the teeth, bones, and surrounding soft tissues and they are made to identify possible problems with the teeth, mouth, and jaw.

X-rays can detect cavities, hidden dental problems, and bone loss that cannot be seen during a visual examination. Dental X-rays may also be done before treatment or as follow-up after dental treatment.

A dental X-ray is essential for virtually all dental procedures. To produce suitable diagnostic radiographs the radiographer requires specialist knowledge of the teeth and oral cavity, as well as types of dental film, exposure settings, processing techniques, use of darkroom, and health and safety.

Dental film is supplied in different sizes and degree of sensitivity and each type of film has different exposure requirements in order to produce suitable radiographs for diagnostic purposes.

A radiographic image shows light and dark areas depending on the density of the material that the x-ray penetrates. Teeth appear lighter because less radiation penetrates them to reach the film. Cavities decay, and other changes in the bone density appear darker because X-rays penetrate them easily. Fillings and other dental work may appear lighter or darker, depending on the density of the material used.

The radiation dose of an X-ray received by a dental patient is typically small. A lead shield, lead apron, and sometimes with a lead collar are used to reduce the patient’s exposure to radiation. The dental specialist reduces their exposure to radiation by going out of the room or by standing behind protective material when the X-ray is taken.

POST-TEXT ASSIGNMENTS

Exercise 5. Answer the questions to the text:

1. What is the Dental Radiology?

2. What is the X-ray negative?

3. What can be detected by Dental Radiology?

4. What does the radiographer require?

5. How is dental film supplied?

6. What does the radiographic image show?

7. Is the radiation dose of an X-ray big or small?

8. How do the dental specialists reduce their exposure to radiation?

Exercise 6. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

радіографічний образ; ідентифікувати можливі проблеми; надзвичайно спеціалізована галузь; необхідна умова; навколишні м'які тканини; радіаційна доза; захисний матеріал; pентгенівський промінь; обробка методів; візуальний догляд; пронекання радіації.

Exercise 7. Insert prepositions where necessary:

The radiation dose … an X-ray received … a dental patient is typically small. A lead shield, lead apron, and sometimes with a lead collar are used … reduce the patient’s exposure to radiation. The dental specialist reduces their exposure … radiation … going … of the room or by standing behind protective material when the X-ray is taken.

Exercise 8. Make up questions to the underlined words:

  1. A radiograph is an exposed and processed film also known as an X-ray negative.

  2. A dental X-ray is essential for virtually all dental procedures.

  3. Dental film is supplied in different sizes and degree of sensitivity.

  4. The radiation dose of an X-ray received by a dental patient is typically small.

Exercise 9. Translate into your native language:

  1. The basic procedure for taking a dental X-ray is to sit the patient down and adjust the headrest so that their head is in the correct position.

  2. The patient is draped with a lead apron and a collar.

  3. The film packet is inserted into the X-ray machine and the X-ray tube is aligned.

  4. The correct exposure factor is selected and the exposure is then made.

  5. The film is then sent for processing.

Exercise 10. Give the summary of the text.

TEST

1. Dental Radiography is a highly specialized ... and used by every modern dental practice.

a) region

b) sphere

c) branch

d) field

e) area

2. A radiograph is an exposed and processed … also known as an X-ray negative.

a) photo

b) layer

c) tape

d) image

e) film

3. X-rays can detect cavities, hidden dental problems, and bone loss that cannot be seen during a … .

a) superficial examination

b) physical examination

c) visual examination

d) post-mortem examination

e) thorough examination

4. A dental X-ray is essential … virtually all dental procedures.

a) in

b) for

c) to

d) by

e) with

5. Dental film is supplied in different sizes and degree of … .

a) perception

b) susceptibility

c) receptivity

d) apprehensibility

e) sensitivity

6. Each type of film has different exposure requirements in order to produce suitable radiographs for diagnostic … .

a) aim

b) goal

c) object

d) purposes

e) intention

7. Teeth appear … because less radiation penetrates them to reach the film.

a) fuzzier

b) darker

c) smoother

d) lighter

e) blurred

8. … and other dental work may appear lighter or darker, depending on the density of the material used.

a) stuffing

b) dressing

c) stopping

d) sealing

e) filling

9. The radiation dose of an X-ray received by a dental patient is typically … .

a) small

b) big

c) huge

d) insignificant

e) large

10. The dental specialist reduces their exposure to radiation by going out of the room or by standing behind protective … when the X-ray is taken.

a) wall

b) paper

c) gown

d) clothes

e) material

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